MDGx MAX Speed WinDOwS
MDGx Windows 7 Tweaks, Fixes, Guides, Downloads + Links
WINDOWS7.TXT is part of MDGx MAX Speed WinDOwS ©Tricks + Secrets: W95-11D.EXE + W95-11D.ZIP
MDGx Windows 7 Tweaks, Fixes, Guides, Downloads + Links in plain text (ASCII) format

MDGx MAX Speed WinDOwS İTricks · Secrets · Bugs · Fixes

Windows 7 Tweaks, Fixes, Guides, Downloads + Links

These topics refer STRICTLY to ALL Microsoft Windows 7 + 7 SP1
retail/final/gamma/Gold/RTM/OEM/MSDN English releases + editions [including
Service Pack (SP)], unless specified otherwise:
Also available as plain text/ASCII file:


WARNING: Take EXTREME CAUTION when modifying your System/Startup settings!
Faulty changes may result in crashes/lockups/permanent data loss, or
might lead to having you REINSTALL your Operating System(s)!
YOU are the ONLY one responsible for ANY changes YOU make!

NOTES: - These Tricks + Secrets have been tested on many computers, but with
NO guarantee they should also work for you!
- Some of these tips I stumbled upon while browsing the Internet or
while helping others with WinDOwS problems, some were kindly sent in
by concerned readers (all authors/contributors are acknowledged and
reliable sources given proper credit), and some I discovered on my
own. Enjoy the ride!
- Contributed tips (clearly marked) posted here do not necessarily
reflect the opinion of the author of these files.

Please send me feedback online:

MUST HAVE from SOFTWARE.TXT (included):
- FREE Windows NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista/2008/7/8/8.1/2012/10/2016 (NTx) Extras:
- 1000+ Windows 9x/NT/2000/ME/XP/2003/Vista/2008/7/8/8.1/2012/10/2016 Power
Toys [99.99% FREE(ware)]:

WINDOWS7.TXT Contents: [New tweaks added at the TOP]

Task Scheduler Tweaks
Patch Windows 7
Customize BOOT Screens
Free(ware) Desktop Wallpaper Tools
Free(ware) 7/8/8.1 Aero Tools + Tweaks
Free(ware) Windows 7 Replacement Apps + Tweaking Tools
Disable/Enable User Account Control (UAC)
Tweaks + Hacks
Free(ware) BOOT Tools + Tweaks
Windows Side-by-Side (WinSxS) Folder
Free(ware) Build, Write, Install + ISO Tools
Updates/(Hot)Fixes + Windows Update (WU)
Application Compatibility Mode (ACM)
Control Panel (CP) + Master (a.k.a. "god") Mode
Public DNS Servers
XP to 7 Easy Transfer Files + Settings
Turn OFF/ON Windows Features
Turn OFF/ON Windows Services
Synchronize Time
CMD + Environment + DOS
Windows 7 @ Wikipedia
Free(ware) + Portable Tools

Task Scheduler Tweaks

Windows 7: Run any BATch/script/program in Task Scheduler minimized and with custom icon:
Windows 10: Run any BATch/script/program in Task Scheduler minimized and with custom icon:
Run applications/scripts minimized from Task Scheduler:
1. Create (if not present) C:\SCRIPTS folder (example) from a DOS console (command prompt):
2. Use Notepad to create C:\SCRIPTS\DEL_RECYCL_B1N.VBS VBScript file (example):
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
Set WshShell=CreateObject("WScript.Shell")
WshShell.Run chr(34)&"C:\SCRIPTS\DEL_RECYCL_B1N.CMD"&Chr(34),0
Set WshShell=Nothing
------End cut & paste here------
3. Use Notepad to create C:\SCRIPTS\DEL_RECYCL_B1N.CMD BATch file (example):
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
IF NOT "%OS%"=="Windows_NT" GOTO END
ECHO.  Deleting $Recycle.BIN folders from all connected drives/partitions 
FOR %%i IN (C: F: G: H: I: J: K: L: M: N:) DO IF EXIST "%%i\$RECYCLE.BIN" %windir%\SYSTEM32\TAKEOWN.EXE /f "%%i\$RECYCLE.BIN" /r /d y >NUL
FOR %%i IN (C: F: G: H: I: J: K: L: M: N:) DO IF EXIST "%%i\$RECYCLE.BIN" %windir%\SYSTEM32\ICACLS.EXE "%%i\$RECYCLE.BIN" /grant:r Administrators:F /t /c /q >NUL
:: FOR %%i IN (C: F: G: H: I: J: K: L: M: N:) DO IF EXIST "%%i\$RECYCLE.BIN" RD /Q /S "%%i\$RECYCLE.BIN" >NUL 2>&1
FOR %%i IN (C: F: G: H: I: J: K: L: M: N:) DO IF EXIST "%%i\$RECYCLE.BIN" %windir%\SYSTEM32\RUNDLL32.EXE %windir%\SYSTEM32\ADVPACK.DLL,DelNodeRunDLL32 "%%i\$RECYCLE.BIN" >NUL 2>&1
------End cut & paste here------
4. Add C:\SCRIPTS\DEL_RECYCL_B1N.VBS (example) to your custom Task Scheduler script -> run:
MMC.EXE /s taskschd.msc
5. Create a new Task -> Action tab -> highlight your task line -> click Edit... button -> Program/script box -> type (example):
-> Add arguments box -> type (example):
6. Customize and save your task to run whenever and however often you wish.

Patch Windows 7

* ReadyFor4GB Patch for Windows Vista/7 32-bit allows RAM usage up to 128 GB:
- Chinese:
- English:

* RAMPatch for Windows Vista/7 32-bit allows RAM usage up to 128 GB:

* 4GB Patch for 32-bit EXEcutables to use up to 4 GB virtual RAM on Windows NTx 64-bit:

* Windows 7 Patches: TCP/IP Connection Limit (TCPIP.SYS), Theme (UXTHEME.DLL),
Terminal Server (TERMSRV.DLL) + Desktop Watermark (USER32.DLL + USER32.DLL.mui):
Windows 7 Desktop Watermark (USER32.DLL + USER32.DLL.mui) Patch:
Desktop Watermark Patch Guide:

* Windows XP/Vista/7 TCPIP.SYS Limited Connections Patch:
Patch %windir%\System32\drivers\TCPIP.SYS -> reboot -> run these 3 commands to turn ON TCP/IP autotuning + scaling heuristics:
%windir%\SYSTEM32\NETSH.EXE interface tcp set global autotuning=normal
%windir%\SYSTEM32\NETSH.EXE interface tcp set heuristics enabled
%windir%\SYSTEM32\NETSH.EXE interface tcp set global rss=enabled chimney=enabled rsc=enabled nonsackrttresiliency=enabled
More info:

* Windows 7 Theme Source Patcher (7TSP):
7TSP Portable:
7TSP Installer:
7TSP Icon Packs:
7TSP requires Resource Hacker:

* ReadyDriver Plus 1.2:

* Driver Signature Enforcement Overrider (DSEO):

Customize BOOT Screens

* Customize Windows 7 Boot Screen Guides:
Win7BootUpdater = MUST USE IT !!!:
Boot Screens:
Custom Animations:
Navi OS from SE Lain:
The Hatchling v2:
Blaupunkt v2:
Pulse Blue:
Pulse Green:
Molecule 16:9:
Earth 16:9:
Stargate Logo:
Starfleet Logo:
Blue Plasma:
DoTa Puck:
Windows 8 ALPHA Fish:
Boot Screens:

Free(ware) Desktop Wallpaper Tools

* Any Wallpaper:
Requires Microsoft .Net Framework Redistributable (NFR) 2.0 (free):
Right-click Taskbar Icon -> Restore main window -> Options -> Choose a wallpaper position: Autofit !

* Logon Background Changer (W7LBC):

* Logon Changer:

* Logon Screen Rotator (LSR):
LSR Guide:

* Wallpaper Slideshow LT:

* Aero Wallpaper Changer:

* Oceanis:

* Windows Wallpaper Changer:

* List of Wallpaper Changers:

Free(ware) 7/8/8.1 Aero Tools + Tweaks

* TransparentMenu 1.20 32-bit + 64-bit:
"%USERPROFILE%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup" shortcut command line:
TransparentMenu.exe -startup

* Window Menu Plus 1.20 (includes stripped-down TransparentMenu) right-click shell context menu 32-bit + 64-bit:

* Aero Adjuster:

* WinAeroTweaker for Windows 7/8/8.1/10:

* Switcher:

* Aura Auto Colorization tool:

* 7+ Taskbar Tweaker for Windows 7/8/8.1/10 = select Portable at install time! :

* Advanced Appearance Settings HTA for Windows 8/8.1 works with Windows 7:

* UxStyle for Windows 7/8/8.1/10:
File Windows 10:
File Windows 8/8.1:
File Windows 7:
Aero Theme for Windows 8/8.1:

* WinAeroGlass for Windows 8/8.1:

* AeroRainbow for Windows 7/8/8.1:

Free(ware) Windows 7 Replacement Apps + Tweaking Tools

* Vista Calculator (CALC.EXE):

* AeroCalc (Glass Theme):

* Notepad (Glass Theme):
Ribbon Notepad:

* Command Prompt (Glass Theme):

* Ribbon Image Viewer:

* Bubbles, Mystify, Ribbons, Lines + Aurora Screen Savers:
Screen Savers Guides:

* XP Pipes (SSPIPES.SCR) Screen Saver:

* 7Smoker Pro:

Disable/Enable User Account Control (UAC)

* Temporary fix: in Windows Vista/2008/7/8/8.1/2012/10/2016 you must
right-click each file/executable/program/installer/command prompt (DOS
console)/BATch file/script/screen saver/etc and select "Run as Administrator"
in order to execute it properly without limitations or restrictions.
Otherwise a nagging dialog box will pop up and you will be prompted to
Run/Open/Save/etc them, or you won't be allowed to execute them every time you
(double-)click on them, and you will notice most of them will not run
properly, or exhibit restrictions, limitations or inappropriate behavior. ;-(

* Permanent fix: disable User Account Control (UAC):
- Windows 10/2016:
- Windows 8/2012/8.1/2012 R2:
- Windows 7/7 SP1/2008 R2:
- Windows Vista/2008:

* UAC_OFF.REG Registry file disables all UAC annoyances:
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
; Disable User Account Control file virtualization (LUAfv) Service:
; Disable ALL UAC settings:
------End cut & paste here------
Open Notepad or similar/better free(ware) plain text/ASCII editor:
and save Registry file above as UAC_OFF.REG.
Right-click on UAC_OFF.REG -> "Run as Administrator" -> answer Yes/OK to all prompts to register its information into your Registry.
Perform same steps for UAC_OFF.BAT BATch file, which also disables UAC:
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
IF NOT "%OS%"=="Windows_NT" GOTO END
:: Disable User Account Control file virtualization (LUAfv) Service:
ECHO Y|%windir%\SYSTEM32\NET.EXE STOP luafv
%windir%\SYSTEM32\SC.EXE CONFIG luafv START= disabled
:: Disable UAC:
%windir%\SYSTEM32\REG.EXE ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System" /v EnableLUA /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f
------End cut & paste here------

* UAC_ON.REG Registry file enables all UAC annoyances:
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
; Enable User Account Control file virtualization (LUAfv) Service:
; Enable ALL UAC settings:
; "ConsentPromptBehaviorUser"=dword:3
------End cut & paste here------
Open Notepad or similar/better free(ware) plain text/ASCII editor:
and save Registry file above as UAC_ON.REG.
Right-click on UAC_ON.REG -> "Run as Administrator" -> answer Yes/OK to all prompts to register its information into your Registry.
Perform same steps for UAC_ON.BAT BATch file, which also enables UAC:
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
IF NOT "%OS%"=="Windows_NT" GOTO END
:: Enable User Account Control file virtualization (LUAfv) Service:
ECHO Y|%windir%\SYSTEM32\NET.EXE START luafv
%windir%\SYSTEM32\SC.EXE CONFIG luafv START= auto
:: Enable UAC:
%windir%\SYSTEM32\REG.EXE ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System" /v EnableLUA /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
------End cut & paste here------

* UAC and Application Run Levels:

* How to disable UAC Prompt for certain applications:

* Selectively disable UAC for trusted Vista/newer applications:

* Change User Account Control (UAC) settings:
- How to Disable Windows User Access Control (UAC):
- Registry Tweaks to Customize User Account Control (UAC) Options in Windows Vista and Later:
- MS TechNet: UAC Group Policy Settings and Registry Key Settings:
- MSDN: FilterAdministratorToken Registry REG_DWORD value:
- MSDN: ConsentPromptBehaviorAdmin Registry REG_DWORD value:
- MSDN: ConsentPromptBehaviorUser Registry REG_DWORD value:
- MSDN: EnableInstallerDetection Registry REG_DWORD value:
- MSDN: ValidateAdminCodeSignatures Registry REG_DWORD value:
- MSDN: EnableLUA Registry REG_DWORD value:
- MSDN: PromptOnSecureDesktop Registry REG_DWORD value:
- MSDN: EnableVirtualization Registry REG_DWORD value:
- How to configure Windows UAC prompt behavior for admins and users:
- Changing How UAC Works (The Hard Way):
- Windows 7: User Account Control (UAC) Change Notification Settings:
- MSKB: Adjust User Account Control Settings in Windows 7/8/8.1:

* Free(ware) UAC tools:
- UAC Pass:
- UAC Tweak:
- TweakUAC:
- Disable UAC:

Tweaks + Hacks

* Windows 7 Slow/Stuck "Checking for Updates" Fix:

* Delete Files Protected by TrustedInstaller:

* Registry keys affected by WOW64 64-bit (x64):

* Specific Registry keys for 64-bit (x64) Windows OSes:
More info:

* Use Large System .FON/.TTF/.OTF Size = DPI Scaling 100%:
Customize Windows 7 Font Face/Size + Taskbar Icons Size:
Change Default System Fonts:
Change Dialog Boxes + Buttons Fonts:
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Fonts]
"Courier 10,12,15"="COURF.FON"
"MS Serif 8,10,12,14,18,24"="SERIFF.FON"
"MS Sans Serif 8,10,12,14,18,24"="SSERIFF.FON"
"Small Fonts"="SMALLF.FON"
"Small Fonts (120)"="SMALLF.FON"
------End cut & paste here------

* MS Sans Serif FON:
125% DPI font file | 100% DPI font file
* MS Serif FON:
125% DPI font file | 100% DPI font file
* Courier FON:
125% DPI font file | 100% DPI font file

* "Next desktop background" item on Desktop right-click context menu in Windows 7:

* Windows XP/2003/2008/7/8/2012 MDL Projects and Applications:

* 175 Windows 7 Tweaks, Tips + How-tos:

* 94 Windows 7 tips, tricks + secrets:

* Windows 7 Right-click Menu Tips, Tricks + Tutorials:

* 20 Best Windows 7 Start Menu and Taskbar Tips + Tricks:

* System Tweaking Freeware:

* Change Default System Font [Registry hack]:

* Create Scheduled Task to Run @ Boot Time:

* Run BATch File as Service:

* Pin Any File to Windows 7 Taskbar:

* Pin to Taskbar - Add or Remove from Context Menu in Windows 7:

* Pin an External Drive to Windows 7 Taskbar:

* Windows 7 Workaround Removes Shortcut Arrow (+ adds Transparency) + Pins to Taskbar/Start Menu:

* Pin Special Windows Items to Taskbar:

* Windows 7 File Association Fixes:

* Remove Favorites/Libraries/Homegroup/My Folder:

* Built-in Windows Commands:

* Easy Windows 7 Tweaks + Tips:

* More Windows 7 Tips:

* List of DOS Console Commands:

* Tweaks + Hacks:

* Transformation Packs + Themes:

* Tutorials:


* Windows 7 system requirements:

Free(ware) BOOT Tools + Tweaks

* Free(ware) Windows Boot Managers:


* Free(ware) DOS Boot Managers:

* BellaVista 32-bit + 64-bit BOOT.INI, Boot Configuration Data (BCD) + BCDEdit.exe interface (GUI) tweaking tool:

* Visual BCD Editor (VBCDE) Boot Configuration Data (BCD) + BCDEdit.exe interface (GUI) tweaking tool:
VBCDE Download:
VBCDE Guide:

* Dual-Boot Repair (DBR) tool:

* EasyBCD Community Edition 32-bit Boot Configuration Data (BCD), BCDEdit.exe + BOOT.INI interface (GUI) tweaking tool:
EasyBCD Online DOCumentation:

* MBRFix 32-bit + 64-bit command line MBR/EMBR create/backup/restore/repair tool:

Windows Recovery Console (WRC) command used to build or modify the BOOT.INI file in Windows 2000/XP/2003.
Can be used to multi-boot with other operating systems (OSes), like Windows Vista/7/8/8.1, Linux, etc.
BOOT.INI can be created/modified using a plain text/ASCII editor from within other OSes.
Free(ware) Text Editors:
bootcfg /list
/list = lists every entry in the boot list in the BOOT.INI file.
bootcfg /scan
/scan = scans all drives for Windows installations + displays the results.
bootcfg /rebuild
/rebuild = steps through the process of rebuilding the BOOT.INI file.
bootcfg /default
/default = sets the default boot entry in the BOOT.INI file.
bootcfg /add
/add = adds an entry manually in the BOOT.INI boot list.
bootcfg /rebuild
In this example the bootcfg command scans all drives for any Windows
installations, displays the results, and steps through building the BOOT.INI
The bootcfg command is only available from within the Recovery Console in Windows 2000/XP/2003.

BCD boot file creation and repair tool.
The bcdboot.exe command-line tool is used to copy critical boot files to the
system partition and to create a new system BCD store.
bcdboot [/l ] [/s ] [/v]
[/m [{OS Loader ID}]]
source Specifies the location of the windows system root.
/l Specifies an optional locale parameter to use when
initializing the BCD store. The default is US English.
/s Specifies an optional volume letter parameter to designate
the target system partition where boot environment files are
copied. The default is the system partition identified by
the firmware.
/v Enables verbose mode.
/m If an OS loader GUID is provided, this option merges the
given loader object with the system template to produce a
bootable entry. Otherwise, only global objects are merged.
Examples: bcdboot c:\windows /l en-us
bcdboot c:\windows /s h:
bcdboot c:\windows /m {d58d10c6-df53-11dc-878f-00064f4f4e08}

Boot Configuration Data Store Editor.
MS TechNet: BCDEdit Command Line Options:
BCDEdit Guide:
BCDEdit commands:
BCDEdit command line tool:
Use BCDEdit to dual-boot multiple Windows:
Dual-boot Windows 7 and Linux using BCDEdit:
Loading/Installing Grub4Dos from Windows:
The Bcdedit.exe command-line tool modifies the boot configuration data store.
The boot configuration data store contains boot configuration parameters and
controls how the operating system is booted. These parameters were previously
in the Boot.ini file (in BIOS-based operating systems) or in the nonvolatile
RAM entries (in Extensible Firmware Interface-based operating systems). You can
use Bcdedit.exe to add, delete, edit, and append entries in the boot
configuration data store.
For detailed command and option information run:
bcdedit.exe /?
For example, to display detailed info about the /createstore command run:
bcdedit.exe /? /createstore
For an alphabetical list of topics in this help file run:
bcdedit /? TOPICS
Commands that operate on a store
/createstore Creates a new and empty boot configuration data store.
/export Exports the contents of the system store to a file. This file
can be used later to restore the state of the system store.
/import Restores the state of the system store using a backup file
created with the /export command.
/sysstore Sets the system store device (only affects EFI systems, does
not persist across reboots, and is only used in cases where
the system store device is ambiguous).
Commands that operate on entries in a store
/copy Makes copies of entries in the store.
/create Creates new entries in the store.
/delete Deletes entries from the store.
/mirror Creates mirror of entries in the store.
Run bcdedit /? ID for information about identifiers used by these commands.
Commands that operate on entry options
/deletevalue Deletes entry options from the store.
/set Sets entry option values in the store.
Run bcdedit /? TYPES for a list of datatypes used by these commands.
Run bcdedit /? FORMATS for a list of valid data formats.
Commands that control output
/enum Lists entries in the store.
/v Command-line option that displays entry identifiers in full,
rather than using names for well-known identifiers.
Use /v by itself as a command to display entry identifiers
in full for the ACTIVE type.
Running "bcdedit" by itself is equivalent to running:
bcdedit /enum ACTIVE
Commands that control the boot manager
/bootsequence Sets the one-time boot sequence for the boot manager.
/default Sets the default entry that the boot manager will use.
/displayorder Sets the order in which the boot manager displays the
multiboot menu.
/timeout Sets the boot manager time-out value.
/toolsdisplayorder Sets the order in which the boot manager displays
the tools menu.
Commands that control Emergency Management Services for a boot application
/bootems Enables or disables Emergency Management Services
for a boot application.
/ems Enables or disables Emergency Management Services for an
operating system entry.
/emssettings Sets the global Emergency Management Services parameters.
Command that control debugging
/bootdebug Enables or disables boot debugging for a boot application.
/dbgsettings Sets the global debugger parameters.
/debug Enables or disables kernel debugging for an operating system
/hypervisorsettings Sets the hypervisor parameters.
To display help for a topic run:
bcdedit /?
where is one of the following:
bootdebug /bootdebug command.
bootems /bootems command.
bootsequence /bootsequence command.
copy /copy command.
create /create command.
createstore /createstore command.
dbgsettings /dbgsettings command.
debug /debug command.
default /default command.
delete /delete command.
deletevalue /deletevalue command.
displayorder /displayorder command.
ems /ems command.
emssettings /emssettings command.
enum /enum command.
export /export command.
FORMATS Formats for types.
hypervisorsettings /hypervisorsettings command.
ID Identifiers for entries..
import /import command.
mirror /mirror command.
set /set command.
store /store command-line option.
timeout /timeout command.
toolsdisplayorder /toolsdisplayorder command.
TYPES Types that apply to any entry.
TYPES BOOTAPP Types that apply to boot applications. These include the
boot manager, memory diagnostic application, Windows OS
loader, and the resume application.
TYPES BOOTMGR Types that apply to the boot manager.
TYPES BOOTSECTOR Types that apply to the boot sector application.
TYPES FWBOOTMGR Types that apply to the firmware boot manager
TYPES MEMDIAG Types that apply to the memory diagnostic application
TYPES NTLDR Types that apply to the NTLDR based OS loader
TYPES OSLOADER Types that apply to the Windows OS loader
TYPES RESUME Types that apply to the resume application
v /v command-line option
The /set and /deletevalue commands require a as a parameter.
uniquely identifies both the data format and meaning of the value.
Data types are identified using either a name or a custom type. The names are
listed below, along with their data formats (in parentheses) and a short
description of the custom type. If a format is not specified, then the
description lists the literal values that you can use for that type. For
information about data formats run:
bcdedit /? formats
The following types are valid for any entry. For information about types that
are specific to a particular entry, such as boot manager entries or the Windows
OS Loader entries, see the end of this help topic.
DESCRIPTION (string) Defines the description of the entry.
PATH (string) Defines the path to the application.
DEVICE (device) Defines the device that the application resides on.
INHERIT (list) Defines the list of entries to be inherited.
For information about additional types for device objects run:
For information about additional types for particular applications run:
bcdedit /? TYPES
where is one of the following:
BOOTAPP Boot applications. These types also apply to the boot manager,
memory diagnostic application, Windows OS loader, and the resume
BOOTMGR Boot manager.
BOOTSECTOR Boot sector application.
CUSTOMTYPES Custom types.
DEVOBJECT Device object additional options.
FWBOOTMGR Firmware boot manager
MEMDIAG Memory diagnostic application
NTLDR OS loader that shipped with earlier Windows OS
OSLOADER Windows Vista OS loader
RESUME Resume application
The following describes the formats of the data that are required for
used with the /set command. The format that is required depends on
the that you specify with the /set command. For more information
about the formats associated with each , run "bcdedit /? TYPES".
bool A boolean value. The following values correspond to TRUE:
The following values correspond to FALSE:
device A device can be one of the following types:
The options for these types are:
A drive letter with a colon and no trailing
(Required) Can be either BOOT, LOCATE, or a drive
letter with colon. The square brackets do not
indicate that this is optional, but are a literal
part of the syntax.
A path to the file (or .wim file) from the root of
the parent device.
The identifier to the device options entry that
contains the system deployment image (SDI) options
for the RAM disk. This is usually
Supplies an optional element used to locate a device
within a VHD. The default locate element for a
device is its application path (systemroot for an
osdevice). Custom values must be specified using
custom element sytax (see -help types customtypes),
for example: locate=custom:22000002.
id An entry identifier, which refers to an entry in the boot configuration
data store. Run:
bcdedit /? ID
for more information about identifiers.
integer A 64-bit integer type. Some integer types can be set using enumerated
integerlist A list of one or more 64-bit integers, separated by spaces.
This list should not be enclosed in quotation marks.
list An entry identifier list. It contains one or more entry identifiers
separated by spaces. The list should not be enclosed in quotation
string A literal string. If it contains spaces, it should be surrounded by
quotation marks ("").
The following types apply to device additional options entries. For information
about data formats for these types run:
bcdedit /? FORMATS
The following options are valid for the device additional options entry:
EXPORTASCD (bool) Enables exporting the RAM disk as a CD.
RAMDISKIMAGELENGTH (integer) Defines the image length for the RAM disk.
RAMDISKIMAGEOFFSET (integer) Defines the image offset for the RAM disk.
RAMDISKSDIDEVICE (device) Defines the device on which the SDI file is
RAMDISKSDIPATH (string) Defines the path to the SDI file.
RAMDISKTFTPCLIENTPORT (integer) Defines the Trivial File Transfer Protocol
(TFTP) client port for the RAM disk Windows
Imaging (WIM) file.
RAMDISKTFTPBLOCKSIZE (integer) Defines the Trivial File Transfer Protocol
(TFTP) block size for the RAM disk Windows
Imaging (WIM) file.
RAMDISKTFTPWINDOWSIZE (integer) Defines the Trivial File Transfer Protocol
(TFTP) window size for RAM disk Windows
imaging (WIM) file.
RAMDISKMCENABLED (bool) Enables or disables Multicast for RAM disk
Windows Imaging (WIM) file.
RAMDISKMCTFTPFALLBACK (bool) Enables fallback to TFTP if Multicast
Many of the Bcdedit commands require identifiers. An identifier
uniquely identifies entries contained in the store. An identifier takes the
form of a globally unique identifier, or GUID. A GUID has the following format,
where each "x" represents a hexadecimal digit.
For example:
The position of the dashes (-) and the braces {} at the beginning and end of
the GUID are required.
Several entries can be identified by well-known identifiers. If an entry has a
well-known identifier, BCDedit displays it in output unless the /v command-line
switch is used. For more information run:
bcdedit /? /v
The well-known identifiers are as follows:
{bootmgr} Specifies the Windows boot manager entry.
{fwbootmgr} Specifies the firmware boot manager entry,
specifically on systems that implement the
Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) specification.
{memdiag} Specifies the memory diagnostic application entry.
{ntldr} Specifies a OS loader (Ntldr) that can be used
to start operating systems earlier than Windows
{current} Specifies a virtual identifier that corresponds to
the operating system boot entry for the operating
system that is currently running.
{default} Specifies a virtual identifier that corresponds to
the boot manager default application entry.
{ramdiskoptions} Contains the additional options required by the
boot manager for RAM disk devices.
{dbgsettings} Contains the global debugger settings that can be
inherited by any boot application entry.
{emssettings} Contains the global Emergency Management Services
settings that can be inherited by any boot
application entry.
{badmemory} Contains the global RAM defect list that can be
inherited by any boot application entry.
{globalsettings} Contains the collection of global settings that
should be inherited by all boot application
{bootloadersettings} Contains the collection of global settings that
should be inherited by all Windows boot loader
application entries.
{resumeloadersettings} Contains the collection of global settings that
should be inherited by all Windows resume from
hibernation application entries.
{hypervisorsettings} Contains the hypervisor settings that can
be inherited by any OS loader entry.
This command sets an entry option value in the boot configuration data store.
bcdedit [/store ] /set [{}] [ /addfirst | /addlast | /remove ]
Specifies the store to be used. If this option is not
specified, the system store is used. For more information run:
bcdedit /? store
Specifies the identifier of the entry to be modified. If not
specified, {current} is used. For more information about
identifiers run:
bcdedit /? ID
Specifies the option data type that will be created or
modified. Run:
bcdedit /? TYPES
for more information about data types.
Specifies the value that should be assigned to the option. The
format of depends on the data type specified. Run:
bcdedit /? FORMATS
for more information about data formats.
/addfirst This switch can only be used if datatype is an object list.
Adds the specified entry identifier to the top of the list.
If this switch is specified, only a single entry identifier
may be specified. If the specified identifier is already
in the list, it will be moved to the top of the list.
/addlast This switch can only be used if datatype is an object list.
Adds the specified entry identifier to the end of the list.
If this switch is specified, only a single entry identifier
may be specified. If the specified identifier is already
in the list, it is moved to the end of the list.
/remove This switch can only be used if datatype is an object list.
Removes the specified entry identifier from the list.
If this switch is specified, only a single entry identifier
may be specified. If the identifier is not in the list
then the operation has no effect. If the last entry is being
removed, then the datatype value is deleted.
The following command sets the application device to the partition C: for the
specified operating system entry:
bcdedit /set {cbd971bf-b7b8-4885-951a-fa03044f5d71} device partition=C:
NOTE: Use 'hd_partiton=' syntax to explicitly disable automatic VHD
detection, and create entries that are compatible for booting a
virtual machine, i.e.:
bcdedit /store F:\boot\bcd /set {default} device hd_partition=F:
The following command sets the OS device to a VHD file (C:\vdisks\vdisk01.vhd)
for the specified operating system entry:
bcdedit /set {cbd971bf-b7b8-4885-951a-fa03044f5d71} osdevice vhd=[C:]\vdisks\disk01.vhd
The following command sets the application path to
\windows\system32\winload.exe for the specified operating system entry:
bcdedit /set {cbd971bf-b7b8-4885-951a-fa03044f5d71} path \windows\system32\winload.exe
The following command sets the NX policy to OptIn for the current operating
system boot entry.
bcdedit /set nx optin

You can use the Bootrec.exe tool in the Windows Recovery Environment
(Windows RE) to troubleshoot and repair the following items in Windows Vista
or 7:
* A master boot record (MBR).
* A boot sector.
* A Boot Configuration Data (BCD) store.
When you are troubleshooting startup issues by using Windows RE, you should
first try the Startup Repair option in the System Recovery Options dialog box.
If the Startup Repair option does not resolve the issue, or if you must
troubleshoot more steps manually, use the Bootrec.exe tool.
To run the Bootrec.exe tool you must start Windows RE.
To do this, follow these steps:
1. Put the Windows Vista or 7 installation disc in the disc drive, and then
start the computer.
2. Press a key when you are prompted.
3. Select a language, a time, a currency, a keyboard or an input method, and
then click Next.
4. Click Repair your computer.
5. Click the operating system you want to repair, and then click Next.
6. In the System Recovery Options dialog box, click Command Prompt.
7. Type Bootrec.exe, and then press ENTER.
To start the computer from the Windows Vista or 7 DVD, the computer must be
configured to start from the DVD drive.
For more information about how to configure the computer to start from the DVD
drive, see the documentation included with the computer or contact the
computer manufacturer.
The Bootrec.exe tool supports the following options.
Use the option appropriate for your situation.
Use the Bootrec.exe tool to troubleshoot "Bootmgr Is Missing" issue.
If rebuilding the BCD does not resolve the startup issue,
you can export and delete the BCD, and then run this option again.
By doing this, you make sure that the BCD is completely rebuilt.
To do this, type the following commands at the Windows RE command prompt:
bcdedit /export C:\BCD_Backup
cd boot
attrib bcd -s -h -r
ren c:\boot\bcd bcd.old
bootrec /RebuildBcd
The /FixMbr option writes a Windows 7 or Vista compatible MBR to the system partition.
This option does not overwrite the existing partition table.
Use this option when you must resolve MBR corruption issues,
or when you have to remove non-standard code from the MBR.
The /FixBoot option writes a new boot sector to the system partition by using
a boot sector that is compatible with Windows Vista or 7.
Use this option if one of the following conditions is true:
* The boot sector has been replaced with a non-standard Windows Vista or 7
boot sector.
* The boot sector is damaged.
* An earlier Windows operating system has been installed after Windows Vista
or 7 was installed. In this scenario the computer starts by using Windows NT
Loader (NTLDR) instead of Windows Boot Manager (Bootmgr.exe).
The /ScanOs option scans all disks for installations compatible with Windows
Vista or 7. Additionally, this option displays the entries currently not in
the BCD store. Use this option when there are Windows Vista or 7 installations
that the Boot Manager menu does not list.
The /RebuildBcd option scans all disks for installations compatible with
Windows Vista or 7. Additionally, this option lets you select the
installations you want to add to the BCD store.
Use this option when you must completely rebuild the BCD.
Startup Repair can automatically recover from most BCD problems.
If you prefer to manually analyze and repair problems, you can use the command
line tool BootRec.exe by starting the System Recovery tools and then clicking
Command Prompt in the System Recovery Options dialog box.
BootRec.exe supports the following command line parameters:
/FIXMBR writes a new MBR to the system partition.
/FIXBOOT writes a new boot sector onto the system partition.
/SCANOS scans all disks for Windows installations and displays entries
currently not in the BCD store.
/REBUILDBCD scans all disks for Windows installations and provides a choice of
which entries to add to the BCD store.

Boot sector restoration tool.
bootsect {/help|/nt60|/nt52} {SYS|ALL|:} [/force] [/mbr]
Bootsect.exe updates the master boot code for hard disk partitions in order to
switch between BOOTMGR and NTLDR. You can use this tool to restore the boot
sector on your computer.
/help Displays these usage instructions.
/nt52 Applies the master boot code that is compatible with NTLDR to SYS,
ALL, or . The operating system installed on SYS, ALL, or
must be older than Windows Vista.
/nt60 Applies the master boot code that is compatible with BOOTMGR to SYS,
ALL, or . The operating system installed on SYS, ALL, or
must be Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008 or later.
SYS Updates the master boot code on the system partition used to boot
ALL Updates the master boot code on all partitions. ALL does not
necessarily update the boot code for each volume. Instead, this
option updates the boot code on volumes that could be used as Windows
boot volumes, which excludes any dynamic volumes that are not
connected with an underlying disk partition. This restriction is
present because boot code must be located at the beginning of a disk
Updates the master boot code on the volume associated with this
drive letter. Boot code will not be updated if either 1)
is not associated with a volume or 2) is
associated with a volume not connected to an underlying disk
/force Forcibly dismounts the volume(s) during the boot code update. You
should use this option with caution.
If Bootsect.exe cannot gain exclusive volume access then the file
system may overwrite the boot code before the next reboot.
Bootsect.exe always attempts to lock and dismount the volume before
each update. When /force is specified, a forced dismount is attempted
if the initial lock attempt fails. A lock can fail, for example, if
files on the target volume are currently opened by other programs.
When successful, a forced dismount allows exclusive volume access and
a reliable boot code update even though the initial lock failed. At
the same time, a forced dismount invalidates all open handles to files
on the target volume. This could result in unexpected behavior from
the programs that opened these files. Therefore, you should use this
option with caution.
/mbr Updates the Master Boot Record without changing the partition table on
sector 0 of the disk that contains the partition specified by SYS, ALL,
or drive letter. When used with /nt52 option, the master boot record
is compatible with operating systems older than Windows Vista. When
used with the /nt60 option, the master boot record is compatible with
Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008 or later.
To apply the master boot code that is compatible with NTLDR to the volume
labeled E:, use the following command:
bootsect /nt52 E:

Windows Side-by-Side (WinSxS) Folder

* Move/delete WinSxS folder in Windows Vista/7/8/8.1:
01. Download + unzip PendMoves + MoveFile -> place them inside C:\Windows\System32 folder.
02. Explorer -> \Windows\WinSxS -> right-click on it -> Properties -> Security tab ->
must list the owner of the directory user (Administrator) -> must grant Administrators group Full Control.
03. From Administrator command prompt -> create dummy directory:
mkdir C:\Windows\WinSxS.moved
04. Create junction (a.k.a. symbolic link):
mklink /J C:\Windows\ WinSxS.moved
05. Delete WinSxS.moved directory:
rmdir C:\Windows\WinSxS.moved
06. Use MoveFile to schedule renaming of WinSxS directory at next reboot.
07. From Administrator command prompt:
movefile C:\Windows\WinSxS C:\Windows\WinSxS.moved
This will rename WinSxS directory before Windows can get a lock on it.
08. From Administrator command prompt:
movefile C:\Windows\ C:\Windows\WinSxS
This restores new WinSxS directory back to avoid OS critical error!
09. From Administrator command prompt:
This shows 2 pending moves you entered above with no errors -> reboot.
10. Upon reboot critical renames/moves will execute and WinSxS directory will be unlocked + allowed to be moved.
11. From Administrator command prompt:
dir C:\Windows\WinSxS*
Can see WinSxS.moved directory contents and WinSxS junction.
If this doesn't work, MUST repeat steps above!
12. Explorer -> copy entire WinSxS.moved directory to \Windows directory on different drive/partition.
13. Rename new directory from WinSxS.moved to WinSxS.
14. From Administrator command prompt:
rmdir C:\Windows\WinSxS
15. From Administrator command prompt:
mklink /J C:\Windows\WinSxS D:\Windows\WinSxS
16. Explorer -> browse to C:\Windows\WinSxS -> should see all files, even if now physically located on different drive/partition.
17. Reboot.
18. Now should be able to delete C:\Windows\WinSxS.moved to free disk space.

* Move/delete WU downloads folder in Windows Vista/7/8/8.1:
Same process can be applied to Windows Updates (WU) list.
Installed Windows updates are configured to download to
which will grow too large, and take too much space.
Stop WU service -> moveCreate a directory junction -> restart WU service -> done.

* Q:
Should you delete files inside \WinSxS directory? And what's the deal with VSS?
Why? Because component store (\WinSxS) is needed to repair OS binaries in the event a file becomes corrupted or compromised.
Directories located under component store:
\WinSxS\Catalogs = Security catalogs for each manifest on the system;
\WinSxS\InstallTemp = Temporary location for install events;
\WinSxS\Manifests = Component manifest for each specific component used during operations to make sure files end up into proper locations;
\WinSxS\Temp = Temp directory used for various operations, pending renames located here;
\WinSxS\Backup = Backups of manifest files in case the copy in \WinSxS\Manifests becomes corrupted;
\WinSxS\Filemaps = File system mapping to a file location;
\WinSxS\ = The binary payloads for each specific component located here.
So long as files in the \Windows\System32 directory are valid, most likely you wouldn't see any problems initially,
the machine would most likely operate properly.
However, the 1st time you attempt to update a binary, apply a service pack or service a component,
it's going to fail because the backing components needed don't exist anymore.
The way files end up in \System32 are via hardlinks.
This should help answer another question regarding how VSS is used in servicing.
Short answer: No. We use NTFS hardlinks to project the file to the file system from the component store.
That's why the \WinSxS directory is so important. The files there can be seen as the "authoritative" versions on the file system.
When you encounter an issue and that binary needs to be replaced, running an SFC /SCANFILE against it will check the directories above and
if the version doesn't match, it will re-project it so it stars working again.
Example to see the hardlink via CLI:
C:\Windows\System32\drivers>fsutil hardlink list ntfs.sys
You can see the NTFS file has a link to the \WinSxS directory and if that version of NTFS were to become corrupted,
we could go back to the component store and find a new copy.
The backup directory in \WinSxS is there in the event the version in that directory has also become corrupted.
It's a good way of having OS protection without consuming a huge amount of space.
New servicing structure does remove the $NTUninstall$ folders that many people have become accustomed to in Windows NT/2000/XP/2003.
Updates, if they are marked removable, no longer contain that structure.
Instead, updates are recommended to be removed via Control Panel -> Programs -> View Installed Updates path.
You can remove Updates via appropriate switches in DISM.EXE or PKGMGR.EXE, but Control Panel method tends to be cleaner.

* WinSxSLite:
OLD 1.86:

* Reduce size of WinSxS folder with COMPCLN.EXE:

* WinSxS = Reduce folder size by deleting some files:

* WinSxS = Delete duplicates by hand:

* Delete Windows 7/8 backup files:

* DISM.EXE Commands:
DISM.EXE /online /Cleanup-Image /StartComponentCleanup
DISM.EXE /online /Cleanup-Image /StartComponentCleanup /ResetBase
DISM.EXE /online /Cleanup-Image /SpSuperseded

* Package Manager (PKGMGR.EXE) Command Line Options:
Use Package Manager (PKGMGR.EXE) to Uninstall A Package:

* Windows 7 64-bit (x64) vLite extreme removal:

* WinSxS Folder in Windows 7/8 explained:

Free(ware) Build, Write, Install + ISO Tools

* Create Windows 7 Live CD/DVD/USB using WinBuilder:

* WinBuilder:
WinBuilder Scripts:
WinBuilder Download Center = Scripts:

* Win7PE_SE:
Win7PE SE Downloads [144 MB]:
multiPE 62 script:

* Get WAIK Tools without downloading entire ISO:

* Windows 7 WAIK:
ISO [1.7 GB]:

* PEFactory:

* PEChecksum v1.4 (ModifyPE fixed to work with Windows Vista/2008/7/8/2012)
corrects 32-bit portable executables (PE) file signatures:

* Tools:

* WinCDEmu Portable:
WinCDEmu 32-bit + 64-bit tool mounts CD/DVD/BD ISO/IMG images on HDD/SSD/USB:

* WinFLASHTool writes raw disk images to flash/memory cards/sticks:

* cdrtfe Audio/CD/XCD/VCD/DVD/BD ISO/bootable burning tool:

* Sevenize:

* Hide Windows 7 Completely: Shell, Logos, Icons, Start etc:

* Completely hide Windows and SHELL with 3rd party Front End:

* Windows 7 Boot Updater:


* OEM licensing terms:
OEM versions of Windows 7 are identical to Full License Retail (FLR) except...
- OEM versions do not offer any free Microsoft direct support from Microsoft support.
- OEM licenses are tied to the 1st computer you install and activate it on.
- OEM versions allow all hardware upgrades except for an upgrade to different model mobo.
- OEM versions cannot be used to directly upgrade from older Windows OS.

Updates/(Hot)Fixes + Windows Update (WU)

* Windows 7/7 SP1 Updates:
Download desired Update(s)/Fix(es) to local disk -> right-click .EXE/.MSI/.MSU file -> Run as Administrator -> reboot (if prompted).

* Windows 7 SP1 System Update Readiness (SUR) tool:
- SUR 64-bit:
- SUR 32-bit:
Windows Update Errors in Windows Vista/2008/7 Fixed by System Update Readiness (SUR) tool:
Fix Windows Update Error 00009C48 in Windows 7:

* Windows 7 SP1 April 2015 Servicing Stack Update (SSU):
- SSU 64-bit [10 MB]:
- SSU 32-bit [8 MB]:

* Windows 7 SP1 Convenience Rollup Update (CRU) + VNIC.VBS VBScript:
- CRU 64-bit [477 MB]:
- CRU 32-bit [317 MB]:

* Windows 7 SP1 Security Quality Rollup (SQR):
SQR is updated every month.

* Windows 7 SP1 Stop Errors with Multiple CPUs TCPIP.SYS Hotfix:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:
- TCPIP.SYS Hotfix 64-bit:
- TCPIP.SYS Hotfix 32-bit:
All TCPIP.SYS Hotfixes for Windows 2000/XP/2003/Vista/2008/7/8/8.1/2012/10/2016:

* Windows 7 Stop Errors with Large SATA HDD MSAHCI.SYS Hotfix:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:
- SATA HDD Hotfix 64-bit:
- SATA HDD Hotfix 32-bit:

* Windows 7 Registry Hive Ntkrnlpa.exe + Ntoskrnl.exe Hotfix:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:
- Registry Hive Hotfix 64-bit:
- Registry Hive Hotfix 32-bit:

* Windows 7/8/8.1 DirectX 9.0c (DX9c)/10.0 (DX10)/11.x (DX11) 32-bit + 64-bit:

* Windows 7 SP1 DirectX (DX) Graphics Update:
- DX Graphics 64-bit:
- DX Graphics 32-bit:

* Windows 7 SP1 DirectX (DX) Direct3D (D3D) App Crash Full Screen Hotfix:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:
- DX D3D Hotfix 64-bit:
- DX D3D Hotfix 32-bit:

* Windows 7 SP1 Performance and Functionality Update (FPU):
- FPU 64-bit:
- FPU 32-bit:

* Windows Vista/2008/7/8/8.1 Windows Help (.HLP) + Compiled HTML Help (.CHM) WinHlp32.exe Fix:

* USBView (USBView.exe):
Available as part of Windows 10 SDK for Windows 7 SP1/8/8.1/10:
Requires Universal C Runtime Update for Windows 7 SP1/8/8.1:
USBView.exe installed in:
- 64-bit Windows OS (x64):
C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\Debuggers
- 32-bit Windows OS (x86):
C:\Program Files\Windows Kits\10\Debuggers

* Windows 7 SP1/8/8.1 Universal C Runtime Update:
- Windows 8.1 64-bit:
- Windows 8.1 32-bit:
- Windows 7 SP1 64-bit:
- Windows 7 SP1 32-bit:

* Windows 7 SP1 Platform Update (PU):
- PU 64-bit:
- PU 32-bit:

* Windows 7 SP1 0x00000050 Stop Error after installing Platform Update (PU):
- PU Error Fix 64-bit:
- PU Error Fix 32-bit:

* FixIt! Windows Installer MSI/MSU Errors:
FixIt! problems that block programs from being installed/removed:

* FixIt! Windows Installer MSI/MSU Install Error 0x8007000D:

* FixIt! Disable "Test mode" message:

* Windows 7 Computer Stops Responding Randomly Hotfix:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:

* Windows 7 SP1 Fatal Error 0x80070643 during .NET/MSI Install:

* Windows 7 SP1 Stop Error 0x00000050 in NTKRNLPA.EXE Hotfix:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:
- NTKRNLPA.EXE Hotfix 64-bit:
- NTKRNLPA.EXE Hotfix 32-bit:

* Windows 7 32-bit Variable %UserDomain% not resolved Profprov.dll + Profsvc.dll Hotfix:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:

* Windows 7/7 SP1 ROBOCOPY.EXE incorrectly skips files Hotfix:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:
- ROBOCOPY.EXE Hotfix 64-bit:
- ROBOCOPY.EXE Hotfix 32-bit:

* How to extract files from .MSU installers and install them in automated mode:
Extract .MSU contents:
EXPAND.EXE -f:* "Q888888.msu" %temp%\Q888888
Then use extracted file (.XML) to install .MSU by using Package Manager:
PKGMGR.EXE /n:%temp%\Q888888\Q888888.xml
Install .MSU directly using Windows Update Standalone Installer (WUSA):
WUSA.EXE "Q888888.MSU" /quiet /norestart

* Toubleshoot: Missing Windows Installer Cache files:

* Microsoft: FixIt!:

* Fix problems with programs that canNOT be installed or uninstalled:

* FixIt! How to disable "Test mode" message:

* Download ALL FixIt! Files:

* FixIt! Disable network adapter power management setting:

* Troubleshoot Intel Network Adapters Power Management:

* Stop Network Adapter from Getting Disabled in Windows 7:

* Prevent Windows from Turning OFF USB Devices:

* 5 Tools to Prevent Windows from Sleeping or Turning OFF the Display:

* How to Keep Your Computer Awake without Touching the Mouse or Keyboard:

* Mouse Jiggler:
Requires Microsoft .Net Framework Redistributable (NFR) 2.0 (free):
MouseJiggle.exe -j -z -m

* How to Uninstall IE9:
FORFILES.EXE /P %windir%\Servicing\Packages /M Microsoft-Windows-InternetExplorer-*9.*.mum /c "CMD /C ECHO Uninstalling package @fname && START /W pkgmgr /up:@fname /norestart"

* Install / Uninstall IE9 in Windows 7:

* Uninstall IE10 and Reinstall IE9 in Windows 7:

* Install / Uninstall IE10 in Windows 7:

Searching, Downloading and Installing Updates:
Searching, Downloading and Installing Specific Updates:
Using the Windows Update Agent API:
Using WUA to Scan for Updates Offline:
MSKB: Error code 0x80000FFFF when using Windows Update or Microsoft Update:
MSKB: How to get latest version of Windows Update Agent:
MSKB: Unable to install Updates:
SevenForums: Windows Update will not start:
SevenForums: Windows Update service not working:
Fix WU:
MDGx: Windows Update Client (WUC) + Windows Update Agent (WUA):

* Portable Update (PortUp):
PortUp DOCumentation:

* Microsoft: Windowss Updates (WU):

* WSUS Offline tool:

* Start WuauServ (WU Service):
NET.EXE START wuauserv
SC.EXE CONFIG wuauserv START= demand

* Run Windows Automatic Updates (WUA):

* Repair/Reinstall Windows Update (WU):

* Fix WU Utility:

* Fix Windows Update Errors:

* FixIt! Windows Update (WU):
File [ONLINE]:

* Repair Windows 7 Update Issues:

* Hide/Restore Hidden Windows Updates in Windows 7/8/8.1:

* Windows Hotfix Downloader (WHDownloader.exe) for Windows 7/8/8.1/10:

* Windows Updates Downloader (WUD):
Updates List (ULZ):

* Windows Update Checker (KUC):

* TheHotfixShare (THS) Windows Hotfixes:
THS forum membership is free.

* Repair & Fix Windows Vista/7 problems with FixWin:

* Windows Update Client (WUC) + Windows Update Agent (WUA):

* System Update Readiness Tool fixes WUA errors in Windows Vista/7/2008/8:

* Windows 7 Internet Explorer 9 (IE9) Core Fonts Blurred Text Fix:
- IE9 Text Fix 64-bit:
- IE9 Text Fix 32-bit:

* Windows 7 + 2008 R2 Application Compatibility Update (ACU):

* Windows 7 Application Compatibility List for IT Professionals:

* Windows 7 + 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1):

* Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE):

* Windows 7 Review:

* Windows 7 ISOs:

* Windows NT Backup Restore Utility for Windows 7:
Hotfix [request links in e-mail]:

Application Compatibility Mode (ACM)

* To DEP or not to DEP... DisableNXShowUI:
Script Compatibility Layers in Windows XP:
Configure "Compatibility" tab:
How to Use Windows Application Compatibility Mode:
How to Use the Compatibility Administration Tool in Windows XP:
Using Program Compatibility Mode in Windows 7:
Use Compatibility Mode to Fix App Problems:
Using RunAsHighest Fix:
UAC and Application Run Levels:
How to disable UAC for certain applications:
Selectively disable UAC for trusted Vista/newer applications:

* Microsoft Windows 2000 SP4/XP/2003/Vista/2008/7/8/8.1/2012 Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) (English):
ACT 5.6 [12.2 MB]:
Requires Microsoft .Net Framework Redistributable (NFR) 3.5 (free):

* AppCompatFlags "Layers" Registry values are case insensitive:
All Users (machine wide):
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\AppCompatFlags\Layers
Current User (localized):
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\AppCompatFlags\Layers
Combos allowed: if more than 1 they MUST be separated by 1 Space.
Windows Vista = VISTARTM
Windows Vista SP1 = VISTASP1
Windows Vista SP2 = VISTASP2
Windows XP SP3 = WINXPSP3
Windows XP SP2 = WINXPSP2
Windows 2000 = WIN2000
Windows 98/ME = WIN98
Windows 95 = WIN95
Run in 256 colors = 256COLOR
Run in 640x480 screen resolution = 640X480
Disable visual themes = DisableTHEMES
Disable desktop composition = DisableDWM
Disable display scaling on high DPI settings = HIGHDPIAWARE
Run this program as Administrator = RunAsAdmin
EveryOne-full (?)

Control Panel (CP) + Master (a.k.a. "god") Mode

* Wikipedia: Windows Master Control Panel shortcut:

* MSDN: Canonical Names of Control Panel Items:

* MSDN: Executing Control Panel Items:

* Windows 7: Inside the Ultimate Control Panel (UCP):

* Master Mode:
EXPLORER.EXE SHELL:::{ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C}
Create New Shortcut [.lnk] or New Folder.

* Control Panel:
- as Folder:
- as Shortcut:
EXPLORER.EXE SHELL:::{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}
Create New Shortcut [.lnk] or New Folder.

* Tips:

* Executing Windows Control Panel Items:

* Personalization:
Font Size and DPI DpiScaling.exe
Screen Resolution CONTROL.EXE desk.cpl,Settings,@Settings
Display CONTROL.EXE desk.cpl,Settings,@Settings
Themes CONTROL.EXE desk.cpl,Themes,@Themes
Screen Saver CONTROL.EXE desk.cpl,screensaver,@screensaver
Multi Monitor CONTROL.EXE desk.cpl,Monitor,@Monitor
Color Scheme CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.Personalization /page pageColorization
Desktop Background CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.Personalization /page pageWallpaper

* System:
Performance SystemPropertiesPerformance.exe
Remote Access SystemPropertiesRemote.exe
Computer Name SystemPropertiesComputerName.exe
System Protection SystemPropertiesProtection.exe
Advanced System Properties SystemPropertiesAdvanced.exe

* Programs and Features:
Add/Remove Programs CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.ProgramsAndFeatures
Windows Features OptionalFeatures.exe

* Regional and Language Options:
Keyboard CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.RegionalAndLanguageOptions /page /p:keyboard
Location CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.RegionalAndLanguageOptions /page /p:location
Administrative CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.RegionalAndLanguageOptions /page /p:administrative

* Folder:
Folder searching RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Options_RunDLL 2
File associations CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.DefaultPrograms /page pageFileAssoc
View RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Options_RunDLL 7
General RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Options_RunDLL 0

* Power:
Edit current plan settings CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.PowerOptions /page pagePlanSettings
System settings CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.PowerOptions /page pageGlobalSettings
Create a power plan CONTROL.EXE /name Microsoft.PowerOptions /page pageCreateNewPlan
Advanced Settings CONTROL.EXE powercfg.cpl,,3

* Canonical Windows Vista/newer:
CONTROL.EXE desktop Display Properties
CONTROL.EXE color Display Properties Appearance tab
CONTROL.EXE date/time Date and Time Properties
CONTROL.EXE international Regional and Language Options
CONTROL.EXE mouse Mouse Properties
CONTROL.EXE keyboard Keyboard Properties
CONTROL.EXE printers Printers and Faxes folder
CONTROL.EXE fonts Fonts folder

* Windows 2000/newer:
CONTROL.EXE folders Folder Options window
CONTROL.EXE netware Novell NetWare window (if installed)
CONTROL.EXE telephony Phone and Modem Options window
CONTROL.EXE admintools Administrative Tools folder
CONTROL.EXE schedtasks Scheduled Tasks folder
CONTROL.EXE netconnections Network Connections folder
CONTROL.EXE infrared Infrared Monitor window (if installed)
CONTROL.EXE userpasswords User Accounts window

* Control Panel tool Command
Accessibility Options CONTROL.EXE access.cpl
Add New Hardware CONTROL.EXE sysdm.cpl add new hardware
Add/Remove Programs CONTROL.EXE appwiz.cpl
Date/Time Properties CONTROL.EXE timedate.cpl
Display Properties CONTROL.EXE desk.cpl
FindFast CONTROL.EXE findfast.cpl
Fonts Folder CONTROL.EXE fonts
Internet Properties CONTROL.EXE inetcpl.cpl
Joystick Properties CONTROL.EXE joy.cpl
Keyboard Properties CONTROL.EXE main.cpl keyboard
Microsoft Exchange (Windows Messaging) CONTROL.EXE mlcfg32.cpl
Microsoft Mail Post Office CONTROL.EXE wgpocpl.cpl
Modem Properties CONTROL.EXE modem.cpl
Mouse Properties CONTROL.EXE main.cpl
Multimedia Properties CONTROL.EXE mmsys.cpl
Network Properties CONTROL.EXE netcpl.cpl
Password Properties CONTROL.EXE password.cpl
PC Card CONTROL.EXE main.cpl pc card (PCMCIA)
Power Management (Windows 95) CONTROL.EXE main.cpl power
Power Management (Windows 98) CONTROL.EXE powercfg.cpl
Printers Folder CONTROL.EXE printers
Regional Settings CONTROL.EXE intl.cpl
Scanners and Cameras CONTROL.EXE sticpl.cpl
Sound Properties CONTROL.EXE mmsys.cpl sounds
System Properties CONTROL.EXE sysdm.cpl

* Using RUNDLL32.EXE in Windows Vista, 2008, 7, 2012, 8, 8.1, 10 + 2016:
Commands can be used in shortcuts, BATch files, scripts, etc.
RUNDLL32.EXE Commands:
Add/Remove/Uninstall Programs + Features:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL appwiz.cpl,,0
Content Advisor:
RUNDLL32.EXE msrating.dll,RatingSetupUI
Control Panel:
Delete Temporary Internet Files (TIF):
RUNDLL32.EXE InetCpl.cpl,ClearMyTracksByProcess 8
Delete Cookies:
RUNDLL32.EXE InetCpl.cpl,ClearMyTracksByProcess 2
Delete History:
RUNDLL32.EXE InetCpl.cpl,ClearMyTracksByProcess 1
Delete Form Data:
RUNDLL32.EXE InetCpl.cpl,ClearMyTracksByProcess 16
Delete Passwords:
RUNDLL32.EXE InetCpl.cpl,ClearMyTracksByProcess 32
Delete All:
RUNDLL32.EXE InetCpl.cpl,ClearMyTracksByProcess 255
Delete All + Files and Settings stored by Add-ons:
RUNDLL32.EXE InetCpl.cpl,ClearMyTracksByProcess 4351
Date and Time Properties:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL timedate.cpl
Display Settings:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL access.cpl,,3
Device Manager:
RUNDLL32.EXE DEVMGR.DLL,DeviceManager_Execute
Folder Options - General:
Folder Options - File Types:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_Options 2
Folder Options - Search:
Folder Options - View:
Forgotten Password Wizard:
Internet Explorer Internet Properties:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,ConBring up trol_RunDLL Inetcpl.cpl,,6
Keyboard Properties:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL main.cpl @1
Lock Screen:
RUNDLL32.EXE USER32.DLL,LockWorkStation
Swap Left and Right Mouse Buttons:
RUNDLL32.EXE USER32.DLL,SwapMouseButton
Mouse Properties:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL main.cpl @0,0
Map Network Drive Wizard:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,SHHelpShortcuts_RunDLL Connect
Network Connections:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL ncpa.cpl
Organize IE Favorites:
Open With:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,OpenAs_RunDLL Any_File-name.ext
Printer User Interface:
Printer Management Folder:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,SHHelpShortcuts_RunDLL PrintersFolder
Power Options:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL powercfg.cpl
Process Idle Tasks:
RUNDLL32.EXE ADVAPI32.DLL,ProcessIdleTasks
Regional and Language Options:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL Intl.cpl,,0
Usernames and Passwords:
Safely Remove Hardware:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL HotPlug.dll
Sound Properties:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL Mmsys.cpl,,0
System Properties:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL Sysdm.cpl,,3
System Properties - Advanced:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL sysdm.cpl,,4
System Properties - Automatic Updates:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL sysdm.cpl,,5
Taskbar Properties:
User Accounts:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL nusrmgr.cpl
Unplug/Eject Hardware:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL hotplug.dll
Windows Security Center (WSC):
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL wscui.cpl
Windows - About:
Windows Fonts Installation Folder:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,SHHelpShortcuts_RunDLL FontsFolder
Windows Firewall:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL firewall.cpl
Wireless Network Setup:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,Control_RunDLL NetSetup.cpl,@0,WNSW

* Administrative Tools:
Administrative Tools = control.exe admintools
Authorization Manager = azman.msc
Component Services = dcomcnfg.exe
Certificate Manager = certmgr.msc
Direct X Troubleshooter = dxdiag.exe
Display Languages = lpksetup.exe
ODBC Data Source Administrator = odbcad32.exe
File Signature Verification Tool = sigverif.exe
Group Policy Editor = gpedit.msc
Add Hardware Wizard = hdwwiz.cpl
iSCSI Initiator = iscsicpl.exe
Iexpress Wizard = iexpress.exe
Local Security Settings = secpol.msc
Microsoft Support Diagnostic Tool = msdt.exe
Microsoft Management Console = mmc.exe
Print management = printmanagement.msc
Printer User Interface = printui.exe
Problems Steps Recorder = psr.exe
People Near Me = p2phost.exe
Registry Editor = regedit.exe or regedt32.exe
Resoure Monitor = resmon.exe
System Configuration Utility = msconfig.exe
Resultant Set of Policy = rsop.msc
SQL Server Client Configuration = cliconfg.exe
Task Manager = taskmgr.exe
Trusted Platform Module = tpm.msc
TPM Security Hardware = TpmInit.exe
Windows Remote Assistance = msra.exe
Windows Share Folder Creation Wizard = shrpubw.exe
Windows Standalong Update Manager = wusa.exe
Windows System Security Tool = syskey.exe
Windows Script Host Settings = wscript.exe
Windows Version = winver.exe
Windows Firewall with Advanced Security = wf.msc
Windows Memory Diagnostic = MdSched.exe
Windows Malicious Removal Tool = mrt.exe

* Computer Management:
Computer Management = compmgmt.msc or CompMgmtLauncher
Task Scheduler = control.exe schedtasks or taskschd.msc
Event Viewer = eventvwr.msc
Shared Folders/MMC = fsmgmt.msc
Local Users and Groups = lusrmgr.msc
Performance Monitor = perfmon.msc
Device Manager = devmgmt.msc
Disk Management = diskmgmt.msc
Services = services.msc
Windows Management Infrastructure = wmimgmt.msc

* Control Panel:
Control Panel = control.exe
Action Center= wscui.cpl
Autoplay = control.exe /name Microsoft.autoplay
Backup and Restore = sdclt.exe
Create a System Repair disc = recdisc.exe
BDE Administrator = bdeadmin.cpl
Color Management = colorcpl.exe
Credential Manager = control.exe /name Microsoft.CredentialManager
Credential Manager Stored User Names and Passwords = credwiz.exe
Date and Time Properties = timedate.cpl
Default Programs = control.exe /name Microsoft.DefaultPrograms
Set Program Access and Computer Defaults = control.exe appwiz.cpl,,3 or ComputerDefaults
Devices and Printers = control.exe printers
Devices and Printers Add a Device = DevicePairingWizard.exe
Display = dpiscaling.exe
Screen Resolution = desk.cpl
Display Color Calibration = dccw.exe
Cleartype Text Tuner = cttune.exe
Folders Options = control.exe folders
Fonts = control.exe fonts
Getting Started = GettingStarted.exe
HomeGroup = control.exe /name Microsoft.HomeGroup
Indexing Options = control.exe /name Microsoft.IndexingOptions
Internet Properties = inetcpl.cpl
Keyboard = control.exe keyboard
Location and Other Sensors = control.exe /name Microsoft.LocationandOtherSensors
Location Notifications = LocationNotifications.exe
Mouse = control.exe mouse or main.cpl
Network and Sharing Center = control.exe /name Microsoft.NetworkandSharingCenter
Network Connections = control.exe netconnections or ncpa.cpl
Notification Area Icons = control.exe /name Microsoft.NotificationAreaIcons
Parental Controls = control.exe /name Microsoft.ParentalControls
Performance Information = control.exe /name Microsoft.PerformanceInformationandTools
Personalization = control.exe desktop
Windows Color and Appearance = control.exe color
Phone and Modem Options = telephon.cpl
Power Configuration = powercfg.cpl
Programs and Features = appwiz.cpl or control.exe appwiz.cpl
Optional Features Manager = optionalfeatures or control.exe appwiz.cpl,,2
Recovery = control.exe /name Microsoft.Recovery
Regional and Language = intl.cpl
RemoteApp = control.exe /name Microsoft.RemoteAppandDesktopConnections
Sound = mmsys.cpl
Volume Mixer = sndvol.exe
System Properties = sysdm.cpl or WinKey + Pause/Break
SP ComputerName Tab = SystemPropertiesComputerName.exe
SP Hardware Tab = SystemPropertiesHardware.exe
SP Advanced Tab = SystemPropertiesAdvanced.exe
SP Performance = SystemPropertiesPerformance.exe
SP Data Execution Prevention = SystemPropertiesDataExecutionPrevention.exe
SP Protection Tab = SystemPropertiesProtection.exe
SP Remote Tab = SystemPropertiesRemote.exe
Windows Activation = slui.exe
Windows Activation Phone Numbers = slui.exe 4
Taskbar and Start Menu = control.exe /name Microsoft.TaskbarandStartMenu
Troubleshooting = control.exe /name Microsoft.Troubleshooting
User Accounts = control.exe /name Microsoft.UserAccounts
User Account Control Settings = UserAccountControlSettings.exe
User Accounts Windows 2000/domain version = netplwiz or control.exe userpasswords2
Encryption File System = rekeywiz.exe
Windows Anytime Upgrade = WindowsAnytimeUpgradeui.exe
Windows Anytime Upgrade Results = WindowsAnytimeUpgradeResults.exe
Windows CardSpace = control.exe /name Microsoft.cardspace
Windows Firewall = firewall.cpl
WindowsSideshow = control.exe /name Microsoft.WindowsSideshow
Windows Update App Manager = wuapp.exe

* Accessories:
Calculator = calc.exe
Command Prompt = cmd.exe
Connect to a Network Projector = NetProj.exe
Presentation Settings = PresentationSettings.exe
Connect to a Projector = displayswitch.exe or WinKey + P
Notepad = notepad.exe
Microsoft Paint = mspaint.exe
Remote Desktop Connection = mstsc.exe
Run = WinKey + R
Snipping Tool = snippingtool.exe
Sound Recorder = soundrecorder.exe
Sticky Note = StikyNot.exe
Sync Center = mobsync.exe
Windows Mobility Center [Laptops/Portables ONLY!] = mblctr.exe or WinKey + X
Windows Explorer = explorer.exe or WinKey + E
Wordpad = write.exe or wordpad.exe
Ease of Access Center = utilman.exe or WinKey + U
Magnifier = magnify.exe
Narrator = Narrator.exe
On Screen Keyboard = osk.exe
Private Character Editor = eudcedit.exe
Character Map = charmap.exe
Ditilizer Calibration Tool = tabcal.exe
Disk Cleanup Utility = cleanmgr.exe
Defragment User Interface = dfrgui.exe
Internet Explorer (IE) = iexplore.exe
Rating System = ticrf.exe
Internet Explorer (No Add-ons) = iexplore.exe -extoff
Internet Explorer (No Home) = iexplore.exe about:blank
Phone Dialer = dialer.exe
Printer Migration = PrintBrmUi.exe
System Information = msinfo32.exe
System Restore = rstrui.exe
Windows Easy Transfer = migwiz.exe
Windows Media Player = wmplayer.exe
Windows Media Player DVD Player = dvdplay.exe
Windows Fax and Scan Cover Page Editor = fxscover.exe
Windows Fax and Scan = wfs.exe
Windows Image Acquisition = wiaacmgr.exe
Windows PowerShell ISE = powershell_ise.exe
Windows PowerShell = powershell.exe
XPS Viewer = xpsrchvw.exe

* Other Shell/User Folders:
Open Documents folder = documents
Open Pictures folder = pictures
Open Music folder = music
Open Videos folder = videos
Open Downloads folder = downloads
Open Favorites folder = favorites
Open Recent folder = recent
Logs out of Windows = logoff
Locks User Account = WinKey + L

* Shell Commands in Windows 7/8/8.1/10 = entire list:
Shell Command Description
shell:AccountPictures Account Pictures
shell:AddNewProgramsFolder Get Programs Control panel item
shell:Administrative Tools Administrative Tools
shell:AppData C:\Users\\Appdata\Roaming folder - %appdata%
shell:Application Shortcuts Folder for all Modern apps shortcuts
shell:AppsFolder Virtual folder for all installed Modern apps
shell:AppUpdatesFolder Installed Updates Control panel item
shell:Cache IE Cache folder [Temporary Internet Files (TIF)]
shell:CD Burning Temporary Burn Folder
shell:ChangeRemoveProgramsFolder Uninstall program Control panel item
shell:Common Administrative Tools Administrative Tools folder for all users
shell:Common AppData C:\ProgramData - %ProgramData%
shell:Common Desktop Public Desktop - same for all users
shell:Common Documents Public Documents
shell:Common Programs All Users Programs - part of Start menu + used by Start screen
shell:Common Start Menu All Users Start Menu folder
shell:Common Startup Startup folder - all users
shell:Common Templates Startup folder - new documents, templates (Microsoft Office)
shell:CommonDownloads Public Downloads
shell:CommonMusic Public Music
shell:CommonPictures Public Pictures
shell:CommonRingtones Public Ringtones folder
shell:CommonVideo Public Videos
shell:ConflictFolder Control Panel\All Control Panel Items\Sync Center\Conflicts item
shell:ConnectionsFolder Control Panel\All Control Panel Items\Network Connections item
shell:Contacts Contacts folder - Address book
shell:ControlPanelFolder Control Panel
shell:Cookies IE Cookies folder
shell:CredentialManager C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Credentials
shell:CryptoKeys C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Crypto
shell:CSCFolder Not valid in Windows 7/8/8.1 - Access to Offline files item
shell:Desktop Desktop - different for each user
shell:Device Metadata Store C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\DeviceMetadataStore
shell:DocumentsLibrary Documents Library
shell:Downloads Downloads folder
shell:DpapiKeys C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Protect
shell:Favorites Favorites
shell:Fonts C:\Windows\Fonts
shell:Games Games Explorer item
shell:GameTasks C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\GameExplorer
shell:History C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\History - IE browsing history
shell:HomeGroupCurrentUserFolder Home Group folder for current user
shell:HomeGroupFolder Home Group root folder
shell:ImplicitAppShortcuts C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch\User Pinned\ImplicitAppShortcuts
shell:InternetFolder Starts Internet Explorer (IE)
shell:Libraries Libraries
shell:Links Favorites folder - Explorer menu
shell:Local AppData C:\Users\\AppData\Local
shell:LocalAppDataLow C:\Users\\AppData\LocalLow
shell:LocalizedResourcesDir Not valid in Windows 8/8.1
shell:MAPIFolder Microsoft Outlook folder
shell:MusicLibrary Music Library folder
shell:My Music My Music folder (not "Library" folder)
shell:My Pictures My Pictures folder (not "Library" folder)
shell:My Video My Videos folder (not "Library" folder)
shell:MyComputerFolder Computer/Drives view
shell:NetHood C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Network Shortcuts
shell:NetworkPlacesFolder Network Places folder - Computers and Devices on your network
shell:OEM Links Does nothing in Windows 8 Retail edition, maybe works in Windows 8 OEM editions [?]
shell:Original Images Not functional in Windows 8/8.1
shell:Personal My Documents folder (not "Library" folder)
shell:PhotoAlbums Saved slideshows - Not implemented yet
shell:PicturesLibrary Pictures Library
shell:Playlists Stored WMP Playlists
shell:PrintersFolder Classic "Printers" folder (not "Devices and Printers")
shell:PrintHood C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Printer Shortcuts
shell:Profile User profile folder - %UserProfile%
shell:ProgramFiles C:\Program Files - %ProgramFiles%
shell:ProgramFilesCommon C:\Program Files\Common Files
shell:ProgramFilesCommonX86 C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files - Windows 64-bit (x64) only
shell:ProgramFilesX86 C:\Program Files (x86) - Windows 64-bit (x64) only
shell:Programs C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs - Per user Start Menu Programs folder
shell:Public C:\Users\Public
shell:PublicAccountPictures C:\Users\Public\AccountPictures
shell:PublicGameTasks C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\GameExplorer
shell:PublicLibraries C:\Users\Public\Libraries
shell:Quick Launch C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch
shell:Recent Recent Items folder - Recent Documents
shell:RecordedTVLibrary Recorded TV Library
shell:RecycleBinFolder Recycle Bin
shell:ResourceDir C:\Windows\Resources where visual styles are stored
shell:Ringtones C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Ringtones
shell:Roamed Tile Images Not implemented yet - reserved for future use
shell:Roaming Tiles C:\Users\\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\RoamingTiles
shell:SavedGames Saved Games
shell:Screenshots The folder for Win+Print Screen screenshots
shell:Searches Saved Searches
shell:SearchHomeFolder Windows Search UI
shell:SendTo Folder with items visible in "Send to" menu
shell:Start Menu C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu - Per-user Start Menu folder
shell:Startup Per-user Startup folder
shell:SyncCenterFolder Control Panel\All Control Panel Items\Sync Center
shell:SyncResultsFolder Control Panel\All Control Panel Items\Sync Center\Sync Results
shell:SyncSetupFolder Control Panel\All Control Panel Items\Sync Center\Sync Setup
shell:System C:\Windows\System32 - %windir%\System32
shell:SystemCertificates C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\SystemCertificates
shell:SystemX86 C:\Windows\SysWOW64 - %windir%\SysWOW64 - Windows 64-bit (x64) only
shell:Templates C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Templates
shell:User Pinned C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch\User Pinned - Pinned items for Taskbar and Start screen
shell:UserProfiles C:\Users - Users profiles main folder
shell:UserProgramFiles Not implemented yet - reserved for future use
shell:UserProgramFilesCommon same as above
shell:UsersFilesFolder Current user profile
shell:UsersLibrariesFolder Libraries
shell:VideosLibrary Videos Library
shell:Windows C:\Windows - %windir%

Public DNS Servers

* Public DNS Servers:

* Router interface: -> router -> Setup -> Basic Setup -> Static DNS 1 + Static DNS 2 -> reset router.

* Fastest + closest DNS Servers -> run DNSBench -> click Benchmark button:

* Complete Internet Repair (CIR) suite 32-bit + 64-bit:
CIR Portable:

* NameServer REG_SZ Registry values:

* Open Ports:

* Level3 (Public Root Servers):

* Open to Public:
# =
# =
# =
# =

* SpeakEasy:

* Sprintlink:

* Cisco:

* Google:
Primary DNS Server (DNS1):
Secondary DNS Server (DNS2):
Install Guide:

* Norton:
Norton ConnectSafe Public DNS Servers:
Norton ConnectSafe Home Users:
Norton ConnectSafe FAQ:
Norton ConnectSafe Network Map:
Norton DNS Status:
Norton DNS Servers:

* Fix DNS by using Public DNS servers:

* Upgrade WRT54G2 router to DD-WRT:

* WRT54G2 Set up web server behind router:
WRT54G2 Static IP config and reconfig:
WRT54G2 Assign static IP(s):

* Norton DNS Install:

* MUST set DNS servers in Windows (PC) to router IP address:
Router caching DNS server will redirect query to currently configured ISP routers
or assigned Public DNS servers.
Router Static DNS IP addresses should be selected from outside DHCP range: -

* Norton ConnectSafe = Configure Router:

* Router Setup:
Type router IP address in a web browser or click Bookmark/Favorite:
Type User name + password (if any) to log in into router interface -> router Menu:
DNS Server settings: -> Status tab -> Router tab:
Router defaults before these changes:
Primary DNS Server (DNS1):
Secondary DNS Server (DNS2):
Click Basic Setup tab:
-> type Norton ConnectSafe IP addresses:
(A) = Security (malware, phishing sites and scam sites):
Preferred DNS Server:
Alternate DNS Server:
in both these boxes (respectively):
Static DNS 1:
Static DNS 2:
Router Basic Setup Help:
Click Save changes button -> reboot.

* Router IP:
Router IP address in Windows NTx:
Start -> Run -> type CMD -> click OK -> type in DOS console window:
press Enter -> Default Gateway IP address = router IP address.

* Test Router:
When done -> Test Norton ConnectSafe DNS servers:
Norton recursive DNS server IP addresses (for experts):
Norton DNS Servers:

* Install PC:
Norton ConnectSafe = Configure PC:

* Windows 7:
Start menu -> Control Panel -> Network and Sharing Center -> View network status and tasks ->
View Active networks -> click item to right of Connections (example) -> Local Area Connection
("your Network Connection name") -> click Connection Status General tab -> click Properties ->
click Connection Properties General tab -> scroll down -> select Internet Protocol Version 4
(TCP/IPv4) -> click Properties -> click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
General tab -> in lower section select (x) Use following DNS server addresses -> type
Norton ConnectSafe IP addresses:
(A) = Security (malware, phishing sites and scam sites):
Preferred DNS Server:
Alternate DNS Server:
Click OK -> exit all dialogs/windows -> reboot.

* Windows XP:
Start menu -> Control Panel -> Network Connections -> select current connection: Wireless or LAN
("your Network Connection name") -> click Connection Status General tab -> click Properties ->
click Connection Properties General tab -> scroll down -> select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) ->
click Properties -> click Internet Protocol Version (TCP/IP) Properties General tab -> in lower
section select (x) Use following DNS server addresses -> type Norton ConnectSafe IP addresses:
(A) = Security (malware, phishing sites and scam sites):
Preferred DNS Server:
Alternate DNS Server:
Click OK -> exit all dialogs/windows -> reboot.

* Test PC:
When done -> Test Norton ConnectSafe DNS servers:
Norton recursive DNS server IP addresses:
Norton DNS Servers:

XP to 7 Easy Transfer Files + Settings

* Windows XP (Server 2003) + 7 (Server 2012) Default System + Users Folders and their correspondents:

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu
7: C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\Application Data\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Desktop
7: C:\Users\Public\Desktop

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\PROGRAM_NAME
7: C:\ProgramData\PROGRAM_NAME

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\Application Data\PROGRAM_NAME

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\All Users
7: C:\ProgramData

XP: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Documents\My Pictures
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Pictures

XP: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Documents\My Music
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Music

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\My Documents
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Documents

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\My Music
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Music

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\My Pictures
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Pictures

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\My Videos
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Videos

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\Application Data
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\AppData\Roaming

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\Local Settings
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\Local

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\Start Menu
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\%USERPROFILE%\Templates
7: C:\Users\%USERPROFILE%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Templates

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu
7: C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu

XP: C:\Documents and Settings\Default User
7: C:\Users\Default

* Windows Easy Transfer (WET) from XP/Vista to 7:
- WET 32-bit for XP 32-bit:
- WET 64-bit for XP 64-bit:
- WET 32-bit for Vista 32-bit:
- WET 64-bit for Vista 64-bit:
- WET 32-bit for XP 32-bit (x86) + WET 64-bit for XP 64-bit (x64):
WET XP/Vista -> 7 Guide:

* XP to 7 Hard Link Migration (HLM) of User Files + Settings:
HLM DOCument:

Turn OFF/ON Windows Features

* Enable and Disable Windows Features in Windows XP/Vista/7/8/10:

* Remove Windows Features You Don't Need:

* What Are Those Windows Features You Can Add or Remove?:

* How to Turn Windows 7 Features On or Off:

Turn OFF/ON Windows Services

* View/Start/Stop/Disable, set to Disabled/Manual/Automatic Windows Services ->
Start button/orb -> Run... (or hold down Windows Logo key and press R) -> type:
click OK or press Enter -> tweak Windows Services after learning about them -> see links below.

* Download SERVICES.HTA:
-> right-click on SERVICES.HTA -> "Run as Administrator" -> tweak listed Services -> click "Save Changes" button.

* Windows 10 Services Configuration:

* Windows 8.1 Services Configuration:

* Windows 8 Services Configuration:

* Windows 7 SP1 Services Configuration:

* Windows 7 Services:

* Windows Vista SP2 Services Configuration:

* Windows XP SP3 Services Configuration:

* Windows XP Services Guide:

* Windows XP Services Tweak Guide:

* Windows XP Services Removal Guide:

* Windows 2000 SP4+ Services Configuration:

* Wikipedia: Windows Service:

* Wikipedia: List of Windows Services:

* SrvMan 32-bit + 64-bit command line + front end GUI interface changes/creates/deletes Windows Services/Drivers:

Synchronize Time

* MS TechNet: Windows Time Service Tools and Settings:

* Update Internet Time from command line:!topic/alt.msdos.batch.nt/UpvUnYfxBkw/

* How to Synchronize Windows Clock with Internet Time Server:

* Synchronize Time unattended in Windows:
Open Notepad or similar/better free(ware) plain text/ASCII editor:
and save BATch file below as TIMESYNC.BAT.
Right-click on TIMESYNC.BAT -> "Run as Administrator".
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
IF NOT "%OS%"=="Windows_NT" GOTO END
:: 1. Enable Windows Time Server (W32Time) NTP Service:
%windir%\SYSTEM32\SC.EXE CONFIG W32Time START= demand
:: 2. Synchronize your computer with a tested internet time server (example):
%windir%\SYSTEM32\W32TM.EXE /config / /syncfromflags:manual /update
%windir%\SYSTEM32\W32TM.EXE /resync
------End cut & paste here------

* List of public internet time servers:

* Wikipedia: Time Server:

* Wikipedia: Network Time Protocol (NTP):

CMD + Environment + DOS

* Windows Environment Variables Tutorial:

* What Are Environment Variables & How Can I Use Them?

* MSDN: Environment Variables:

* Environment variable:

* Wikipedia: Environment variable:

* Introduction to Windows Command Prompt:

* SS64: CMD.EXE:

* SS64: SET:


* Rob van der Woude's Scripting Pages:

* Complete List of MS-DOS Commands:

* Wikipedia: List of DOS commands:

Windows 7 @ Wikipedia

* Wikipedia: Features new to Windows 7:

* Wikipedia: List of features removed in Windows 7:

* Wikipedia: Windows 7:

Free(ware) + Portable Tools

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