WinDOwS Tricks - Part 18Go to ALL
WinDOwS ©Tricks + Secrets Contents
7-26-00 Updated Win9x/ME Registry ©Trick in REGISTRY.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
CD-ROM/DVD + HARD DISK MAX CACHE
These cool [and completely UNDOCUMENTED!] Win95/98/ME Registry hacks appear courtesy of Thomas B. Tompkins
With author's approval I have compiled Thomas' 5 e-mails into this single
article, and added more details and explanations. :) Many thanks!NOTES:
[shareware, $10 :(] can also set the HD cache buffer in the Registry, which maxes out at 2 MB:
- "BOOST CD/DVD READ AHEAD CACHE:I found out that a Windows 9x/ME cd-rom
cache of 8 MB (8192 KB) is a little over the top. :) I even had it at 64 MB and my machine locked up, so I "downsized" it to
4 MB (4096 KB) and guess what, it rocks! Caching every CD folder is like killer open speed!
This is the REG file to
create a 4 MB CD/DVD cache (copy & paste it in Notepad) by modifying/creating the "Required Pause
Tolerance" Binary [hex] Value:-----Begin cut & paste here-----
Tolerance"=hex:e7,13,00,00------End cut & paste here------NOTE: The "CD-ROM" Registry key above may NOT exist on "clean install" Windows 98/ME systems,
in which case you need to create it by running this REG file.
[Thank you Gavin!]If
you want to use a larger cache, this is how to figure it out:
Create a new "dummy" DWORD Value which you can delete later
(the name is of no importance), and start up with a Decimal Value of 5000. You will see a new setting: 5 MB (5120
KB) = 5083 in Decimal to be exact. Now use the 4 Hexadecimal double digit groups in reversed order in your "Required
Pause Tolerance" Binary [hex] Value box. Example:
Just don't type the commas.
- DWORD [Decimal] =
- DWORD [Hexadecimal] = 000013db
- Binary [hex] = db,13,00,00
You can go on up from there, but BEWARE of using larger values that might slow down the access, or even generate
lockups if your computer has less than 64 MB RAM!
After applying the desired values by running (merging) your saved REG
file into the Registry (using Explorer or File Manager), a reboot is necessary for the new settings to take effect.
you can even see the change in Control Panel → System → Performance tab → File System
button → CD-ROM tab → Settings:"Windows will use 4096 kilobytes of physical memory to optimize CD-ROM performance
during data access."This seems to help greatly with CD-R/CD-RW burning, eliminating potential buffer
- BOOST HARD DISK READ AHEAD CACHE:The best part is that you can also
increase the "ReadAheadThreshold" Binary [hex] Value (which applies to ALL drives installed in your Windows 98/ME
system, NOT available on Windows 95/OSR1/OSR2!) under this Registry key (as displayed in a REG file):-----Begin cut & paste here-----
"ReadAheadThreshold"=hex:00,00,00,0f------End cut & paste here------In this
case the read ahead threshold is set to 1.87 MB (1920 KB).
The beauty is that Windows uses this memory dynamically
to read ahead, only when opening files/folders, returning it back to the system afterwards.As far as I'm aware these are
the maximum values allowed by Windows 9x/ME for "ReadAheadThreshold", "NameCache" and "PathCache" (save
this as a REG file):
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\FS Templates\Maximum Performance]
------End cut & paste here------In this case Windows will cache up to
65280 files (the "NameCache" Value) and up to 255 folders (the "PathCache" Value).WARNINGS:
If you decide to use them [with CAUTION!]: after merging this REG file into your Registry, start
using the "Maximum Performance" setting from: Control Panel → System → Performance tab → File System
button → Hard Disk tab → Select "Maximum Performance" in the "Typical role of this computer" box → click
OK/Apply twice → reboot when prompted."
- Together the settings above will "eat up" up to 64 MB of
your system memory! Use them ONLY IF your computer has at least 128 - 256 MB RAM!
- If using an AGP video controller
you may also need to decrease the "AGP Aperture/Memory Size/Range" setting in the BIOS (the name depends on
motherboard/BIOS manufacturer) to 32 MB, or 16 MB (which actually disables the use of system memory for video tasks
through the AGP bus), or even lower (minimum allowed is 4 MB). Otherwise you may experience machine
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
------End cut & paste here------"[Thank you sToRmMoNkEy!]Back 2 Contents
6-21-00 Win9x Registry ©Trick in REGISTRY.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
Courtesy of Andrew Bourdon."There are still a lot of people who use Windows Telnet
to access remote computers. It seems slow, ugly, and a general pain in the neck.
Luckily, while I was tweaking my *very*
old x486 laptop, I discovered some interesting Registry keys. Open Regedit and go to:HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\TelnetThere you will see several DWORD and String Values which
should be fairly self-explanatory. Here are a few helpful settings:
Back 2 Contents
6-14-00 Win9x Registry ©Trick in REGISTRY.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
- "CursorEditFlags"="3" → This defines how many flags are used when editing a Telnet session.
Try different values until you find one you like.
- "Machine1"="xx.x.xxx.xxx" → Defines
the default IP address of the computer you are contacting (changes after successful logon).
- "WinPosLeft"="16" → Defines how far to the left the session box is placed.
- "WinPosTop"="16" → Defines how far from the top the session box is placed.
- "SmoothScroll"="1" → Win98 Smooth Scrolling does not work for Telnet, but setting this key to
1 (default is 0) will enable Telnet smooth scrolling."
... As brought to you courtesy of Richard."It seems that in addition to the new
entry for the Win98 Global TCP/IP bug fix (also in TIPS98.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE) in the MSTCP parameters, as well as all the described Registry fixes in your other articles, not only improved the speed of my Internet connection, but also dramatically
improves my browsing speed if you add these three new entries under the "MSTCP" Registry key, as shown in this REG
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
------End cut & paste here------Copy this text in Notepad, save it with the
.REG extension, then right-click on it in Explorer and select Merge.
These are ALL String [REG_SZ] Values, and the
recommended numeric value is 1 for ALL three.All above settings (and more) are described in this MSKB article."NOTE:
lists "Tcp1323Opts" as DWORD Value for Windows 9x/ME.
Correct Value Type for "Tcp1323Opts" is String
[Thank you Ashley!]MEANING:
Back 2 Contents
6-8-00 Win9x/ME Registry ©Trick in REGISTRY.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
Defines TCP window scaling and time stamping options.
Valid Tcp1323Opts String [REG_SZ]
values are 1, 2 or 3:
Window scaling should be always enabled because it is required for large TCP receive
window [DefaultRcvWindow (RWIN)] values > 65535.
- 1 = allows only window scaling (recommended for
- 2 = allows only time stamps (not recommended: rarely used).
- 3 = allows both (not
recommended: slower performance).
Time stamping slows down the connection a bit and is very rarely
Courtesy of Neil."This is a list of "EditFlags"
functions to control how items appear in the Windows Explorer Folder Options dialog:
Here is a list of File Types which
Windows 9x/ME "hides" by default:
- "01 00 00 00" = Allows all commands to be altered (like most other file
- "d8 07 00 00" = Doesn't allow user to change the default action, or delete
existing actions (like MS-DOS Batch Files).
- "d2 01 00 00" = Only allows a few options to
be changed (like Drive).
- "d0 04 00 00" = Item appears in list, but can't be edited or
deleted at all (like Applications).
- "02 00 00 00" = Disables changing of MIME types
(like AudioCD and URL Protocols).
- "00 00 00 00" = Item doesn't appear on list (like
.DLL files, or "Application Extensions" as Microsoft likes to called them).
Example of Registry key containing the "EditFlags" Binary [hex] Value, as it appears in a .REG
(registration, plain text) file:-----Begin cut & paste here-----
- .386 = Virtual Device
- .DLL = Application Extensions.
- .DRV = Virtual Device Drivers.
- .LNK = Shortcuts. The
"EditFlags" here is a DWORD Value.
- .PIF = Shortcut to MS-DOS Programs.
- .SYS = System Files.
- .VXD = Virtual Device
"EditFlags"=hex:00,00,01,00------End cut &
paste here------A known "issue" with these is that changing the value for Applications (.EXE files) has no effect.
I haven't checked some of the other executable types.
These Registry tweaks are also available as separate plug-ins (6
plug-ins, each covering one file type: .386, .CPL, .DLL, .DRV, .PIF, .SYS and .VXD) for X-Setup Pro, the best Windows 9x/NT4/2000/ME/XP/2003/Vista/2008/7 power user system tweaker (freeware
for personal use)."FYI: More info:Back 2 Contents
5-25-00 Win9x/DOS6/DOS7 Original ©Trick in MYTIPS95.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
PLAY DOS GAMES WITH SOUND BLASTER LIVE!
Do you use MS-DOS 6.xx and/or Windows 95 or 98 [a.k.a. MS-DOS 7.xx]?
Do you own a Creative Labs Sound Blaster Live! PCI card?
Do you still play
DOS based games that require native MS-DOS mode?
If you answered YES to these questions, you're in for a
First, to learn how to boot directly to native MS-DOS to play your favorite games, see "2 DOS OR NOT 2 DOS", also in MYTIPS95.TXT [part of W95-11D.EXE].These are
the necessary steps to successfully play your old DOS games that require native/real/true/pure MS-DOS mode (and canNOT be run
from a Win9x DOS box/session!) with sound enabled:It is known that the SB Live! cards (ANY flavor: Full, Value, OEM/1024,
X-Gamer, MP3, Platinum etc) provide only SB16 FM synthesis emulation support in all DOS modes. This means you won't be able
to play any fancy Wavetable or Extended MIDI sequences, only basic sounds, and eventually CD audio, if your software can
emulate it. :(
If you're a DOS die-hard fan [like I am :)], there is an alternative solution to
this problem: get a Creative Labs Sound Blaster AWE64
Gold ISA card [that is if your motherboard has any ISA slots available], the best audio board for DOS apps/games,
featuring full MIDI and Wavetable support in native MS-DOS.Back to SB Live!:
You can (probably still) find this card for really cheap at popular internet vendor sites.
If you do get one, and if this is your only ISA device in your
computer, make sure you enable the "Passive Release" and "Delayed Transaction", and increase the "8-bit I/O
Recovery" setting to maximum (usually 8) in your BIOS "Advanced Chipset Features" (or similar) Setup
screen, to have your ISA card(s) perform without a hitch together with all your PCI devices.
This is necessary because the
PCI clock frequency is much faster (33 MHz) than the ISA counterpart (16 MHz), and it has to be forced to wait longer (more
clock cycles) for the ISA device(s) to "catch up". Otherwise you may experience sudden machine lockups. If enabled, these
settings will slow down the overall system speed a bit, but your PC will run more reliably.
The BIOS configuration above
applies to Abit BE6-II mobos. If you have an Abit BH6 mainboard, these settings are
found under the "Chipset Features Setup" BIOS menu. On all Abit mobos press the Del key to access BIOS Setup
when the AWARD POST (Power On Self Test) display appears.
If you do NOT have any ISA devices installed in your
computer (all your mobo's ISA slots are empty or your mainboard does not have any ISA slots), it is highly recommended to
disable/decrease to minimum these BIOS settings, to gain maximum performance on all PCI/AGP based PCs!
If you'd like to
avoid "messing" with your BIOS Setup altogether, you can do this the "easy" way. :) Get TweakBIOS
for DOS [freeware and $20 registered versions], the ultimate BIOS configuration tool, which fine tunes most hidden settings
not available in BIOS Setup (use with CAUTION!) without rebooting.
By default, when you
first install the Win9x Live! drivers from your CD, you will be asked to setup the "Creative SB16 emulation"
for DOS programs. Answer "Yes" to let Setup enable DOS support. Then edit (using Notepad in Windows or
EDIT in DOS) your AUTOEXEC.BAT file (found in C:\ root), or create one if it is not present, though this should not
be necessary, because the SB Live! installation routine will create one for you, and will add these lines at the top
(your paths may differ):SET MIDI=SYNTH:1 MAP:E MODE:0
SET BLASTER=A220 I5 D1 H5 P330
C:\PROGRA~1\CREATIVE\SBLIVE\DOSDRV\SBEINIT.COMin this EXACT order. The "SET
<variable>" lines MUST appear BEFORE the SBEINIT line, because SBEINIT.COM uses these environment
values to determine your SB Live! DOS hardware settings.
Note that drive letter/directory name and/or hardware assignments
[memory address: A220, interrupt line: I5, low/high DMA channel: D1/H5 etc] may be different on your
computer, depending on your custom setup.
This should get you started in some cases, but [there's always a "but" :)] there
are a couple of things you need to do first, to ensure that SBEINIT initializes the card correctly upon boot.
Notepad in Windows or EDIT in DOS) your CONFIG.SYS file (found also in C:\ root), or create one if not present, to include
these lines at the top:DOS=HIGH,UMB
DEVICE=C:\WINDOWS\EMM386.EXE I=B000-B7FF RAM D=256 AUTONote that SBEINIT will NOT load without
expanded memory (EMS) enabled by EMM386.EXE's "RAM" parameter! And make sure your EMM386.EXE command does NOT
contain the "NOEMS" switch, because this disables EMS, and SBEINIT will abort!
See this MSKB article for more details.
NOT try to use another 3rd party enhanced/expanded memory manager like QEMM, NetRoom, 386MAX etc. SBEINIT works
ONLY with Microsoft's EMM386.EXE! :(
Also, you need to load SBEINIT at the beginning of your AUTOEXEC.BAT,
BEFORE ANY OTHER drivers/TSRs (especially SMARTDRV or RAM disks), because it uses a huge amount of free upper memory
SBEINIT takes about 5 KB of low (conventional) RAM after loading.
SBEINIT canNOT load in upper
memory (UMA), therefore you may NOT use the "LOADHIGH" ("LH" for short) command. If you do, your machine will freeze,
and you will have to press the Reset button to reboot. :(
UPDATES:To tweak your SB16 emulation hardware settings to your liking
(but make sure to avoid a hardware conflict if another device in your computer uses the same interrupt or DMA
channel!), you can use SBESET.EXE, a DOS based configuration tool, also located in the same \DOSDRV subfolder.
Run:SBESET /?from native MS-DOS to display all available parameters.
- "I load SBEINIT high without problems on my machine (Asus P2L97-S mobo, Win98 OS), but as long as
the SB Live! Windows drivers change these AUTOEXEC.BAT lines (typical examples):
SET BLASTER=A220 I5 D1 H5 P330 T6
to force the emulation driver to load into low
memory, we need a workaround.
There are 2 ways of loading SBEINIT into upper memory:
Both methods work on my system, and I get about 622 KB of free conventional RAM
after booting, and before loading Windows, using the HIMEM.SYS and EMM386.EXE releases shipped with Windows 98 (build 4.10.1998)."
- Place all AUTOEXEC.BAT
lines above in your CONFIG.SYS, and load SBEINIT using "INSTALLHIGH=" in your CONFIG.SYS (example):
Then skip the (now useless) AUTOEXEC.BAT
lines this way (starting with the 1st line at the top, which is usually "@ECHO OFF"):
SET MIDI=SYNTH:1 MAP:E MODE:0
SET BLASTER=A220 I5 D1 H5 P330 T6
This is necessary because
if using the "REM" or "::" commands to comment them out, the SB Live routine removes the comments every time when the Windows
GUI loads, reenabling these lines. :(
- If loading SBEINIT (as explained above) from CONFIG.SYS fails, try to use 4DOS (free COMMAND.COM replacement) and load SBEINIT from 4START.BAT, or create a
separate batch file which loads SBEINIT, and call this BATch from your AUTOEXEC.BAT (example):
[Thank you ACiD StOUt!]
- "I haven't had any trouble loading SBEINIT.EXE in upper
memory with EMS disabled (NOEMS). I had trouble running it with SmartDrive, though. :( I'm using Win95C OSR 2.5 with HIMEM.SYS +
EMM386.EXE in CONFIG.SYS.
IMPORTANT: You can stop AUTOEXEC.BAT and DOSSTART.BAT from being edited by SB Live! every
time you boot by moving CTSYN16.DRV from C:\Windows\System or by renaming it.
The sound card works fine in Windows, but I
haven't tried in DOS yet."
[Thank you Martin!]
To see all your free
hardware resources (IRQ, DMA, Base Address etc) that can be safely used by SBESET, run (with Windows GUI started!): Control
Panel → System → Device Manager tab → (double-)click on Computer → scroll
through the IRQ, DMA, I/O and Memory resources lists → write down the ones that appear NOT to be used by ANY hardware device →
exit Windows 9x to native MS-DOS [see "DOS NOW!", also in MYTIPS95.TXT (part of W95-11D.EXE)] → run SBESET with the appropriate switches to reflect one of your free Device Manager
resources for each setting → reboot into Windows → reopen the resources lists → check for ANY question or exclamation marks. If you find any, try different settings for SBESET until all conflicts
are resolved. Then reboot one more time.
You can also add a line for SBESET in your AUTOEXEC.BAT to keep these settings
"alive" at all times. But BEWARE: if you later add new hardware to your machine that needs an IRQ, DMA channel, I/O
and/or memory address to function, or for some reason you or your OS change(s) ANY hardware resources, you need to repeat
ALL above steps afterwards, to ensure "smooth" operation.
If using SBESET from AUTOEXEC.BAT, make sure the SBEINIT
line appears AFTER the SBESET command, and BEFORE the SMARTDRV.EXE and/or RAM
Disk (i.e. XMSDSK.EXE/EMSDSK.EXE) lines, if any!
This is my AUTOEXEC.BAT SBESET line
(example) which enables SB FM emulation and the use of joystick/flight-stick (connected to the SB Live! 16 pin joystick/MIDI
port) in native MS-DOS mode for all my DOS based games:E:\LIVE\DOSDRV\SBESET.EXE -d0 -j1 -w0 -A220 -I5
-D1 -H5 -J200 -P330All SBESET command line parameters are case sensitive.
Any hardware assignments altered by
SBESET require a reboot to take effect.
If everything goes well, you should be able to enable sound and music in your
favorite DOS games from now on, by choosing the appropriate sound card (try first Sound Blaster, Sound Blaster 16, SB16,
AWE32 or similar) in your game's Setup/Options menu. Wrong sound board selection may lockup your game and most likely
your computer too. :(BTW: If you'd like to have more than one boot choices, for example one for
running Win9x GUI without EMM386.EXE, or with EMM386.EXE but without EMS enabled (only upper and extended memory support:
add "NOEMS"), and another for playing native MS-DOS games (and eventually include the SB Live! lines detailed above), you can
create multi-boot CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files. Take a look at mine [both included with W95-11D.EXE]
to learn how to do this.FYI:
Sound Blaster Windows 95/98/ME + DOS audio drivers forum.
Sound Blaster Windows/WfWG 3.1x/95/98/ME +
DOS audio drivers.Have fun!Back 2 Contents
5-18-00 Win9x/ME Original Registry ©Trick in REGISTRY.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
ENABLE UDMA/RAID HARD DISK DMA
This tweak applies to ALL Windows 95/98/ME users who own add-on/3rd party/proprietary UDMA/UATA 66/100/133 EIDE and
(most likely, because the principle is the same) RAID hard disk controllers installed into their PCs.
FYI: You may not observe any disk access improvement (and you do NOT need to alter your Registry) with
some UDMA/66/100/133 controllers, like the ones manufactured by Promise
Technology, because these have the DMA setting enabled by default into the drivers.
I'm not going to detail here the meaning of U(ltra)DMA/U(ltra)ATA/66/100/133, EIDE or RAID,
because it is not the purpose of this article. ;) See my Glossary, also found as GLOSSARY.TXT
[part of W95-11D.EXE], for terms definitions.
I have tested and am using successfully this Registry
workaround with my High Point Technologies UDMA100 IDE
hard disk controller (model HPT370) (running Win98 SE) built into my Abit BE6-II v2.0 Pentium II/III Slot 1 PCI/AGP
The HPT370 updated drivers for Windows 95/98/ME can be downloaded from High Point Tech.
So far so good. But what I didn't quite
like is that after properly installing the HPT370 drivers (any version!) in Windows 98 SE, the DMA option, usually
available for all (E)IDE drives (hard disks, CD-ROMs, CD-R(W)s, DVDs etc) connected to the standard motherboard (E)IDE
controller (NOT add-on!), which can be enabled in: Control Panel → System → Device Manager tab → Disk drives (or
CDROM) → Your "Drive Name + Model Number" here → Settings tab → DMA toggle check box, was NOT
Not a problem though. I've found a simple way [read Registry tweak :)] to bring back the DMA setting for both my
IBM Deskstar 22GXP UDMA66 (22 GB) EIDE hard drives, hooked up to the HPT370 ATA/100 controller.
Fire up Regedit and go to
the add-on disk controller Registry key(s), in this case the HPT370 "SCSIAdapter" key(s):HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Class\SCSIAdapter\0001and:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Class\SCSIAdapter\0002which MUST show the
respective adapter name on the "DriverDesc" String Value, in this case: "Highpoint Technology Inc. HPT370 Ultra DMA
There are two keys here because I have two UDMA66 EIDE hard drives connected to my add-on adapter.
You might have only one key if using only one drive [jumpered as master, of course :)].
In the right hand pane of both
keys above: right-click → select New → Binary Value → name it "IDEDMADRIVE0" (don't type the
quotes) → click OK → (double-)click on it → type 01 → click OK. This will enable
the DMA box on the master (single or primary in 2 drives setup) hard drive. I have two, so I created another Binary Value (by performing same steps) named "IDEDMADRIVE1"
(secondary or slave in 2 drives setup), and I gave it the same value: 01.
Then you need to point Regedit to the
HKLM\Enum\PCI\ and HKLM\Enum\SCSI\ keys that contain the "incriminated" add-on bus adapter and disk subsystem
registered vendor serial numbers (refering here to the same example above):
MUST show the respective adapter name on the "DeviceDesc" String Value, in this case: "Highpoint Technology
Inc. HPT370 Ultra DMA 100 Controller".
In the right hand pane: right-click → select New → Binary Value → name it
"DMACurrentlyUsed" (don't type the quotes) → click OK → (double-)click on it → type 01
→ click OK.
Close Regedit when done and restart Windows.
Now go to: Control Panel → System → Device Manager
tab → Disk drives → Your "Drive Name + Model Number" here → Settings tab →
DMA box → left-click it once to place a checkmark in it → click OK/Apply twice. Repeat these steps for ALL your drives connected to the add-on adapter
→ reboot your system when prompted.
Voila!Back 2 Contents
5-8-00 Win9x/NT4/2000/ME/XP ©Trick in TIPS95.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
LOVE(LY) VIRUS FIX
Two great friends kindly sent in these fixes for the notorious "ILOVEYOU" e-mail virus and its "lovely" clones:
FYI: Check out these "ILOVEYOU" anti-virus pages + tools:Back 2 Contents
4-14-00 Win9x/ME Original ©Trick in MYTIPS95.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
- Captain's FIXes:"Read this MSKB FAQ
about securing MS Outlook.Xteq has released a plug-in [3.3 KB, free, unzip the XPL file into your
Xsetup\Plugins subfolder] for X-Setup Pro 6.6 [freeware for personal use].
lowers the risk and increases your system security against potentially dangerous Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) Script files
(such as .VBS, .VBE, .JS, .JSE, .WSH, .WSF), by changing their default action (when these files are clicked on) to view
their contents in Notepad, instead of running their executable code, which is the default behavior in Microsoft Windows
95/98/NT4/2000/ME/XP. And you can still run such script files if you wish: right-click on the one you want → select
The plug-in can also be turned off by unchecking its settings in X-Setup from: System → Security →
To uninstall the plug-in: start X-Setup → follow the path above → highlight Script
Files → right-click on it → click Delete."
- Chris' FIX:"In Windows Explorer → File Association dialog box, move down the list of "Registered File Types" until you find two entries both titled
"VBScript Script File". Select the first one and click Edit now. In the Actions list select Edit and then click "Set Default". Now do the same for the second "VBScript Script File"
From now on each time a VBS or VBE file is executed it will be opened with Notepad instead of being processed,
protecting you from harmful code. To run a VBS or VBE file, right-click on it and select "Open".
NOTE: Using this
tip may have side effects with any software that depends on its own VBS files and expects them to execute
SCANDSKW HIDDEN SWITCHES
I finally [:)] decided to list here all, including hidden (some are NOT even documented!) Windows 95/98/ME ScanDisk (SCANDSKW.EXE = located in your main Windows folder) command line parameters,
the "de facto" Microsoft disk scanning + repair tool.TIP: ALL Windows 95/98 users: see "USE WINME DEFRAG + SCANDSKW WITH WIN95/98", also in TIPS98.TXT
[part of W95-11D.EXE], to learn how to obtain a faster disk scanner!
LIMITATIONS:Valid syntax (multiple switches each separated by a space are accepted on a single command line):
- WinME DEFRAG.EXE + SCANDSKW.EXE
maximum supported hard drive/partition size is ~ 800 GB ONLY IF formatted with default
- WinME DEFRAG.EXE + SCANDSKW.EXE maximum (experimental) supported hard drive/partition size is ~ 2 TB ONLY IF formatted
with non-default 64 KB cluster size!
SCANDSKW [C: D: E: ... Z:] [/A] [/N] [/O] [/P] [/SAGERUN:x] [/SAGESET:x] [/SILENT] [/SURFACE]
Registry keys used by Scandskw.exe:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Applets\Check Drive
- SCANDSKW C: D: E: ... Z: = Specify target fixed (hard)
disk(s)/partition(s) drive letter(s) to scan, each followed by a colon (:).
- SCANDSKW /A (ALL or ALLFIXEDDISKS) = Checks and repairs ALL target fixed (hard) disks/partitions.
- SCANDSKW /N
(NONINTERACTIVE) = Starts and ends unattended without prompting for parameters. Summary screens are displayed.
- SCANDSKW /O (OLDFS) = Converts ALL Windows style Long File Names
(LFNs) on target fixed (hard) disk(s)/partition(s) to DOS style (8.3) Short File Names (SFNs).
DANGEROUS* = ALL folder AND file LFNs will be IRREVERSIBLY LOST !!!
- SCANDSKW /P (PREVIEW) = Preview
mode: scans, but makes NO changes to target fixed (hard) disk(s)/partition(s).
- SCANDSKW /SAGERUN:x = Starts and
ends unattended using System Agent (Task Scheduler) settings from the SETn Registry key, where n = 0 -
- SCANDSKW /SAGESET:x = Displays System Agent (Task Scheduler) Settings dialog box and
saves them under the SETn Registry key, where n = 0 - 50:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Plus!\SystemAgent\SAGE\Scandisk for Windows\Setn
/SILENT = Does NOT allow ANY command line parameters. Summary screens are NOT displayed.
- SCANDSKW /SURFACE =
Performs surface scan: checks and repairs ALL clusters on target fixed (hard) disk(s)/partition(s). May take long time to
complete, depending on each disk/partition capacity.
HKEY_USERS\.Default\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Applets\Check DriveRegistry keys used by Scandskw.exe
+ Task Scheduler (System Agent):HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Plus!\SystemAgent\SAGE\Scandisk for
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Plus!\SystemAgent\SAGE\Scandisk for Windows\Result
CodesSystem Agent also saves these settings in Schedlog.txt (located in %windir%, usually
C:\WINDOWS).More info:FYI: See also these topics [also part of W95-11D.EXE] for more
ScanDisk issues:Back 2 Contents
4-14-00 Win9x/DOS6 ©Trick in TIPS95.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE, and in MYTIPS31.TXT, part of W31-11D.ZIP:
BACKUP MBR WITH DEBUG
Another cool tip from... Da Drk Sde. May Da Force B with U. :)
Things you can do with DEBUG.EXE:Back 2 Contents
4-6-00 Win9x/ME Original Registry ©Trick in REGISTRY.TXT, part of W95-11D.EXE:
- "BACKUP MBR:For those not familiar with DEBUG, here is how to backup your boot hard disk MBR
(Master Boot Record) in case of disaster.
The MBR is present once on each physical drive, and is beyond the scope of
the MS-DOS filing system to address. That's why the proper way to backup/restore the MBR is to use a BIOS int13 call to fetch
it.IMPORTANT: If using Win95, OSR2, 98 or ME, FIRST you need to enable direct hard disk
access to the drive(s)/partition(s) you backup/restore the MBR/DBR on. To do this run:LOCK
X:After backing up/restoring the MBR/DBR you need to disable direct HD access (for proper operation in Windows), by
running:UNLOCK X:Replace X with an actual drive letter from C to Z. Multiple drive letters
are allowed on the same line separated by spaces. Example:LOCK C: D: E:or:UNLOCK C: D: E:These internal (built-in) DOS commands can be executed ONLY from native/real/true/pure MS-DOS
mode.Go to any DOS prompt (real mode or windowed session, doesn't matter) and type:DEBUGThis will start the debug mode, which has a prompt like a hyphen (-).
From now on hitting
the Enter key is understood after each line.
Type:N A:\MBR_C.DATto give Debug a
filename to save data to.IMPORTANT: Saving the MBR backup file to the same disk you're
backing up makes no sense, because that drive becomes inaccessible if its MBR gets corrupted.Type:Ato place Debug in assemble mode.
arbitrarily choose a memory segment for the BIOS to put the data we want.
ES,DXto move that value to the extra segment register.
Type:XOR BX,BXto clear
the BX register. ES:BX specifies the full memory address.
Type:MOV CX,0001to access
track 0 and sector 1.
Type:MOV DX,00801st physical drive is 80, 2nd drive is 81, and so
Type:MOV AX,0201to read ... one sector  into memory.
Type:INT 13to issue the BIOS int13 call.
Type:INT 20to tell the
BIOS to terminate the program.
Now press the Enter key without entering anything after that to exit assemble
Type:Gto execute the small assembly program you have just
Type:R CXto show the contents of CX register and to allow editing
Type:200200 hex = 512 decimal - the size of a sector.
Type:W 9000:0to finally write the data fetched by the BIOS to a file.
Type:Qto quit Debug.
- RESTORE MBR:In the event
the MBR ever becomes corrupted, you can create a batch file (e.g. RESTRMBR.BAT), which can use DEBUG commands echoed
to a temporary file (e.g DEBUG.TMP) by invoking DEBUG, which uses the temporary file as input file.
lines below into Notepad or EDIT.COM, and save the file as RESTRMBR.BAT. Then place RESTRMBR.BAT and DEBUG.EXE on the
same floppy that contains the MBR_C.DAT file created above (example):
-----Begin cut & paste here-----
ECHO N A:\MBR_C.DAT > DEBUG.TMP
ECHO L 9000:0 >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO A >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO MOV DX,9000 >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO MOV ES,DX >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO XOR BX,BX >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO MOV CX,0001 >> DEBUG.TMP
REM Replace 80 with 81, 82 or 83... if necessary:
ECHO MOV DX,0080 >> DEBUG.TMP
REM To write one sector ... to drive ...:
ECHO MOV AX,0301 >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO INT 13 >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO INT 20 >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO G >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO Q >> DEBUG.TMP
ECHO. >> DEBUG.TMP
DEBUG < DEBUG.TMP
------End cut & paste here------To restore the saved MBR from the floppy
disk, just run RESTRMBR.BAT.
Incidentally DOS assigns drive letters by getting the primary partitions from
each physical drive out of the way first. So if you have two physical hard disks, then D: would be the primary partition on
the second HD, even though you may have several other partitions on the first HD.
DBR:Use DEBUG to backup your DBR (DOS Boot Record), present at the start of all logical
drives/partitions, in case of disaster.
Go to any DOS prompt and type:DEBUGThis will
start the debug mode, which has a prompt like a hyphen (-).
From now on hitting the Enter key is understood after each
Now type:LCS:100 2 0 1This loads (reading from right to left) the boot sector
starting at sector 0, located on drive number 2 (your C: drive/partition), respecting this convention:
Drive number Drive letter
... and so on.Then type:N
path\filenameto give DEBUG a name to call the file it will write the sector to (example):N
A:\DBR_C.DATIMPORTANT: Saving the DBR backup file to the same disk you're backing up
makes no sense, because that drive becomes inaccessible if its DBR gets corrupted.Type:RCXType:200This loads register CX with a hex value of 200 (512 decimal),
the exact size of a standard sector, letting it know that 200h (512 dec) is the number of bytes to save to file.
Type:WCS:100This writes the number of bytes contained in CX starting at current code segment at offset 100
to the filename specified by the N command.
- RESTORE DBR:In the event the DBR ever
becomes corrupted, you can create a batch file (e.g. RESTRDBR.BAT), which can use DEBUG commands echoed to a temporary
file (e.g DEBUG.TMP) by invoking DEBUG, which uses the temporary file as input file.
Copy/paste the lines listed
above under "RESTORE MBR:" (replace them as necessary with the ones for the DBR file) into Notepad
or EDIT.COM, and save the file as RESTRDBR.BAT. Place RESTRDBR.BAT and DEBUG.EXE on the same floppy that contains the
DBR_C.DAT file created above, and then run RESTRDBR.BAT."
Below are listed most of the DirectX DirectDraw 5/6/7/8/9 2D + 3D video settings that allow maximum performance
and/or stability under Windows 95/98/ME, all of which can be tweaked also by using:
Grab DX9 Control Panel applet (CPL) [free].
- Dxdiag.exe (located in C:\Windows\System), part of MS DirectX
8/9 APIs [free],
- Dxinfo.exe (obsolete, located in C:\Program Files\Directx), part of the older MS DirectX 5/6
- DirectControl DirectX tweaking tool for Win9x/ME [111 KB, 3rd party
freeware], which can also handle 3D/A3D Audio, HD Cache/Vcache, CD/DVD Cache/Prefetch etc settings.
Grab DXInfo.exe + DXTool.exe
[free].Install the current Microsoft DirectX APIs + Drivers to take advantage of all these settings
in Windows 98/ME.NOTE: DX9 does NOT support Windows 95/OSR1/OSR2. If using any of these
OSes, get DirectX 8.xx APIs.But enuff talking... let's see the "goods"! :)Fire up Regedit and go
to:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\DirectDrawUnder this Registry key you can add/modify
the following DWORD values (listed here as they would show in a REG file).
To create a new DWORD value: right-click → New
→ DWORD → Name it to one of the values listed below.
To modify one of these DWORD values: right-click on the one you
want → select Modify → check the Decimal box → give it a value of 1 or 0 to enable or disable it, except
"ForceRefreshRate", which requires an integer number to match the video card AND monitor frequency.
All changes to these
settings become effective immediately.CAUTION: BACKUP YOUR REGISTRY FILES FIRST!Here
they are:"ForceNoSysLock"=dword:00000000Enables  or disables  NoSysLock on
Lock for lower resolution 3D video modes."DisableNoSysLock"=dword:00000000Enables  or
disables  NoSysLock on Lock for lower resolution 3D video modes."DisableMMX"=dword:00000000Enables  or disables  extra MMX extensions support for
Intel Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III and Pentium IV CPUs."DisableWiderSurfaces"=dword:00000000Enables  or disables  3D Wide Surfaces
support on newer/faster PCI/AGP video controllers that support this feature, like: 3dfx
Banshee/Voodoo3/Voodoo4/Voodoo5/Voodoo6, NVidia TNT/TNT2/GeForce/Geforce2/GeForce3, S3 Savage, Matrox G200/G400/G440/G450,
ATI Rage/Fury/MAXX/Radeon etc."EnablePrintScreen"=dword:00000001Enables  or
disables  the use of the Print Screen key to capture current window/full screen, which can be afterwards pasted and
saved as JPG/BMP/GIF/etc into any OLE2 capable graphics program like MS Paint, PhotoShop, Paint Shop Pro, IrfanView, XNview,
LView Pro etc."DisableInactivate"=dword:00000000Enables  or disables 
Multi-Monitor Debugging for troubleshooting purposes, if using a dual-monitor head capable video controller."ShowFrameRate"=dword:00000000Enables  or disables  the display of frame rate
for 3D apps/games that support this feature, and available only on 3D video cards.
Note that this setting may slow
down slightly your Direct3D programs."ModeXOnly"=dword:00000000Enables  or
disables  ModeX support for 320x200 (EGA) on older/slower video cards that may present incompatibilities
in this low resolution mode."EmulationOnly"=dword:00000000Enables  or
disables  Software Emulation Layer (SEL) for slower performance but better stability on older/slower (i.e.
2D only) video cards.
Newer AGP/PCI 3D video cards use by default Hardware Emulation Layer (HAL), thus it is recommended
to disable this setting for maximum "velocity". :)"DisableAGPSupport"=dword:00000000Enables  or disables  AGP Support, ONLY
IF supported by motherboard, video hardware AND video driver."ForceRefreshRate"=dword:00000064Forces [hex number: 60 - 300 decimal in Hz (100 Hz used in this
example)] custom 2D (and 3D if supported by the video card) video Refresh Rate (redraw vertical frequency) for BOTH
the multi-scan CRT monitor AND the graphics accelerator in current video mode [1024x768 in 65,000 colors (16-bit) used
Note that selected frequency MUST be supported by BOTH video card AND monitor, otherwise you may damage one or
That's why it is VERY IMPORTANT to select the appropriate monitor type in: Control Panel → System
applet → Device Manager tab → Monitors → Your Monitor Name → Driver
tab → Update Driver...!With the Registry Editor open, go to:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Direct3DHere you'll find:"DisableDP2"=dword:00000000Enables  or disables  enhanced DirectX 6/7/8 3D
features on ALL PCI/AGP 3D video accelerators. It is strongly recommended to keep this setting enabled for maximum
performance in Direct3D apps/games.Then go to:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Direct3D\DriversThe only setting of interest here is:"SoftwareOnly"=dword:00000000Enables  or disables  the use of Hardware
Acceleration on ALL PCI/AGP 3D video cards. It is strongly recommended to enable this feature for optimal
performance.FYI: See "WIN.INI DIRECTX + VIDEO SETTINGS", also
in MYTIPS95.TXT [part of W95-11D.EXE], for more DirectX + video tweaks.Back 2 Contents
4-6-00 Win3.1x/9x/ME AOL ©Trick in AOLTIPS.TXT, part of both W95-11D.EXE and W31-11D.ZIP:
AOL.EXE command line parameters work with ALL Windows 3.1x/9x/ME releases.
To learn how to start AOL using
command line switches, which allows you to go directly to your area of interest upon running AOL, proceed with these
FYI: See "OPEN URL
WITH AOL" + "OPEN EMAIL WITH AOL", both also in AOLTIPS.TXT [part of W95-11D.EXE], for
examples.Back 2 Contents
- Start AOL.
- Click the Favorites icon.
- Open Favorite Places.
- Click the "Add Favorite
Place" button to create a new item.
- In the "Enter the Place's Description:" box type:AOL Logon Scriptsor any other suggestive name.
- In the "Enter the Internet Address:"
- Click OK.
- (Double-)click on
"AOL Logon Scripts" and read the topic.
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free. I have created [August 1996], maintain and update these web pages entirely by hand using Programmer's File Editor [replaced
|I do not promote, speak in the behalf of, advertise or work for any
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trademarks retain owners' property.|